Tag Archives: TPP-2015-12

Little Rock Parking Enforcement Goes All-Out for the Cure

TPP-2015-12-Little Rock Parking Enforcement Goes All-Out for the Cure

The Susan G. Komen Race for the Cure was recently held in Little Rock, Ark., and the city’s parking enforcement division went above and beyond to help out.

The 5K race is run through the heart of the downtown area and has not only the second-largest number of participants of any Race for the Cure in the U.S. but the support of the entire community. The entire race route is lined with spectators cheering on all the participants from the first to the last person to cross the finish line. The City of Little Rock has always enthusiastically supported the race and traditionally hangs race banners from City Hall.

This year, Little Rock Parking Enforcement decided to honor the participants by covering the meters along the race route in pink bags. After numerous inquiries to various providers of meter bags, it was learned that pink meter bags did not exist. Parking enforcement staff, however, were undaunted. Pink merchandise bags were found that were the same size as meter bags. Parking enforcement staff got with workers in the Special Program Section of Public Works and developed their own artwork for the bags. A printer was found who could print the artwork on clear acetate that could then be attached to each bag. An assembly line was formed, and the artwork was carefully attached to each bag. The entire race route, including the assembly area and the area just beyond the finish line, was lined with the custom pink Susan G. Komen Race for the Cure bags.

During the race, many participants stopped to have their pictures taken standing next to one of the covered meters. After the race, many of the participants asked about obtaining one of the bags as souvenirs. As word spread that they could take the bags home, most were eagerly gathered up to be cherished by those who had run past them earlier in the day. It was a great experience for Little Rock!

TPP-2015-12-Little Rock Parking Enforcement Goes All-Out for the Cure

Papal Preparations

TPP-2015-12-Papal PreparationsBy William Wasser

In late September, Philadelphia was honored to host Pope Francis and hundreds of thousands of pilgrims. From near and far (sometimes very far), they flocked to Philadelphia’s Benjamin Franklin Parkway to catch a glimpse of the pontiff as he celebrated Mass in front of the world-renowned Philadelphia Art Museum.

Considered one of the most massive security undertakings in U.S. history, Pope Francis’ visit to Philadelphia required the cooperation of multiple government agencies to ensure the pontiff’s safety while causing the least amount of disruption to Philadelphia residents. The Philadelphia Parking Authority (PPA) played an instrumental role in ensuring a smooth and safe papal visit.

Richard Dickson, PPA deputy executive director, spearheaded the authority’s efforts leading up to and during the papal visit. “There was incredible pride in the fact that our city was chosen for an event this large and of this complexity. We realized there was going to be a balancing act between security precautions and making the events accessible to those wishing to attend,” he says.

Getting Ready

There was one glaring question in the back of Philadelphia residents’ minds in the weeks leading up to the visit: “Where the heck am I going to park while the Pope’s in town?”

With this question in mind, and because parking was prohibited within the large event security zone, the PPA took multiple steps to provide alternative parking for residents to reduce the likelihood of vehicles being towed.
“When we got to the point of knowing where the security restrictions would be placed, I felt our responsibility was to mitigate the impact of those restrictions, particularly on the people who live within the security zone,” Dickson says.

“When our security zone analysis determined 6,500 parking spaces needed to be cleared, we also realized people had to live their lives during this massive event with as little disruption as possible,” he continues. “So we devised a way to accommodate residents while enforcing necessary security restrictions.”

Making Accommodations
First and foremost, residents living within prohibited parking zones were permitted to park in PPA-operated garages at a discounted flat rate of $20. That fee was waived if a resident had a valid neighborhood residential parking permit. The discounted parking allowed residents to park in the PPA’s garages for a four-day period; vehicular traffic within the security zone was prohibited from 10 p.m., Thursday, Sept. 25, until 12 p.m., on Monday, Sept. 28.

After purchasing a parking space in the PPA’s garages, each participating resident was issued a towing exemption placard. Vehicles displaying these placards were exempt from towing until 10 p.m., Sept. 25. This allowed sufficient time for residents to relocate their vehicles to the PPA’s garages for the following four days. Residents with residential parking permits who lived in the affected security area were also given the option to park in other residential parking districts.

Getting the Word Out

Aside from providing sufficient parking options for residents, the PPA was also tasked with towing illegally parked vehicles on all streets within the security zone by 10 p.m. Sept. 25. That meant communication was a vital part of the plan. Dickson explains, “One of the biggest and most important issues was communicating with residents and getting accurate information out as quickly as possible so residents could make necessary adjustments with the least amount of disruption as possible.”

With parking options available and roads needing to be clear of parked vehicles within the security zone, the PPA began disseminating the information to Philadelphia residents in a timely manner—and the authority used every tool available.

“We utilized every public communication tool at our disposal, both old and new. We issued press releases, did press interviews, and left fliers on cars. We had significant outreach through our social media channels, Twitter and Facebook,” says Dickson.

Leading up to the papal visit, it became clear the PPA was a vital information hub for Philadelphia residents and visitors. This meant the authority needed to provide real-time information to the public, which is where social media outreach played a paramount role.

Jessica Meeder, account manager for Chatterblast Media LLC, the PPA’s contracted digital marketing firm, explains, “The expectation on social media is that people can look to our page for real-time updates. Therefore, we built a solid plan addressing the ‘how’ and ‘what’ information people would need during the papal visit. We broke a ton of information into multiple blogs so it was digestible. We also interacted and shared messages from other important city organizations. The key to communication on social media was keeping it as straightforward and simple as possible.”

The Results

As the clock wound down to the papal visit, and real-time information continued to flow, the communication strategy employed by the PPA had clearly paid off.

A relieved Dickson explains, “As a result of our communications strategy, we had a 90 percent compliance rate for areas where parking prohibitions were in effect. That’s almost unheard of. In the past when we needed to clear streets for large events, we had 75 percent compliance at best.”

The PPA had originally planned to tow some 1,500 vehicles leading up to the Pope’s visit. The end tow number was slightly more than 600. This high compliance rate means Philadelphia residents got the message early to move their vehicles and paid attention to the various parking options available to them.

With all roads cleared and security zone restrictions in full force, the PPA’s heavy lifting for the huge event was complete and contributed to a seamless papal visit.

Building on Experience

The PPA’s advanced work and preparations for the papal visit will long be remembered by PPA staff. “I have never been part of something this massive before,” Dickson says. “We’ve had to clear streets for parades and massive snow storms and other major events, but we’ve never been part of something of this magnitude with so many moving parts that needed to work together.”

Though preparing for the papal visit was a massive undertaking, Philadelphia is no stranger to large-scale events, and there are certainly more on the horizon. The City of Brotherly Love and Sisterly Affection has been tapped to host the 2016 Democratic National Convention. We at the PPA fully intend to build upon what was learned during the papal visit. Given the complexity of the papal visit, the Democratic National Convention should be a cakewalk.

William Wasser is digital outreach coordinator with the Philadelphia Parking Authority. He can be reached at wwasser@philapark.org.

TPP-2015-12-Papal Preparations

And the Winners Are…

TPP-2015-12-And the Winners Are...By Michael Myer and Marye Hefty

In 2015, 18 organizations won Phase II Lighting Energy Efficiency in Parking (LEEP) Campaign awards by saving an average 60 percent in parking lighting energy. Since LEEP was launched in 2012, award winners have achieved 200 million square feet of high-efficiency-lighting parking for combined energy savings of 69 million kilowatt-hours nationally, which is equivalent to roughly the same amount of energy used annually by 6,400 homes. (Other laudable participants contributed to even greater savings nationally.)

IPI will present the next round of LEEP Awards at its Conference & Expo in May 2016 (see details at the end of this article).

How Can LEEP Help Parking?
Advances in lighting technology, lighting controls, and design practices since 2010 have created ample opportunities for energy savings for parking facilities. Realizing this, in 2012 the Building Owners and Managers Association (BOMA), Department of Energy (DOE), Green Parking Council (GPC, an affiliate of IPI), and International Facility Management Association (IFMA) started the LEEP Campaign; IPI was then invited to join as an organizer as the largest and leading association of parking professionals. LEEP’s overarching goal is to reduce the energy consumed by parking facilities through the installation of high-efficiency lighting.

LEEP makes energy-use data accessible, recognizes positive accomplishments, and facilitates ­energy-saving actions among multiple stakeholders. The LEEP website has calculators to help determine the economics of a possible lighting change and lists lighting incentives and performance specifications for high-efficiency lighting for parking lots and structures.

Finally, the LEEP Campaign offers limited technical assistance via independent third-party entities that can provide lighting recommendations to sites, answer questions about technology, make suggestions about equipment and layout, and provide other recommendations (technical assistance is barred from doing actual lighting designs).
Of the 21 individual parking facilities considered in Phase I and 23 in Phase II, the average payback was less than six years. A few factors are important to consider:

The cost of electricity can vary significantly across the U.S. Site managers need to research electricity costs for specific sites when considering different lighting installations.

To stay competitive with LEDs, virtually all light sources now offer long-life options with manufacturers claiming lives of their products at 40,000; 60,000; or even 100,000 hours. By upgrading the light equipment to longer-life equipment, annual maintenance costs are reduced.

Many regional energy organizations offer rebates for installing high-efficiency equipment and controls for parking facilities. The LEEP website includes a list by state and by application (structure vs. lot) of incentives from across the country.


Detroit Airport McNamera Terminal Parking and Blue Deck
The Detroit Airport saved nearly 6 million kWh annually in energy by upgrading the lighting at the McNarama parking terminal, a 4.6 million-square-foot parking structure, resulting in a LEEP award for a single parking structure within the airport industry and the LEEP award for annual absolute energy for upgrading the lighting at two parking structures for 7.5 million kWh a year in savings.


  • Highest Absolute Annual Savings in a Retrofit at a Single Parking Structure.
  • Largest Portfolio-wide Annual Absolute Energy Savings.

Technology: 60-W LED light fixtures and lighting controls
(replaced 175-W metal halide light fixtures).

Parking Specs: two parking structures; 6 million square feet; 18,000 parking spaces.

Savings Summary: 7.5 million kWh saved; 68 percent compared to original design and $770,000 annually.

Denver International Airport East and West Parking Garages
Travelers appreciate the cleaner and brighter light in this retrofit. LEEP recognizes that the lighting power density for this retrofit is 0.05 W/ square feet, which is significantly lower than most current energy codes (0.19 W/square feet) for parking structures. By right-sizing the lighting equipment and lighting choices and by not over-lighting and using the better distribution of new technologies, Denver International Airport maximized energy savings.

Award(s): Exemplary Airport Parking Facility.

27-W, 50-W, and 70-W LED light fixtures (replaced 100-W and 150-W metal halide light fixtures with 250-W high-pressure sodium light fixtures, respectively).

Parking Specs:
one parking structure; 5 million square feet; 15,000 parking spaces.

Savings Summary:
4 million kWh saved, a 53 percent savings compared to the original design for an annual savings of $400,000 in electricity savings.

Military Facilities
The Department of Defense (DoD) consumes 1 percent of all the energy (including fuel for transportation) used in the United States.

A vast majority of this is in fuel for vehicles, but building installation energy use (including parking facilities) is still significant.

The Army Reserve 63rd Regional Support Command
The Army achieved energy savings of 85 percent at the Military Equipment Parking facility by replacing multiple medium-wattage HID fixtures with lower-wattage and fewer LED fixtures.

Award(s): Highest Percentage Savings in a Retrofit at a Single Parking Lot.

Technology: 120-W LED light fixtures (replaced 1,000-W HID light fixtures).

Parking Specs: 40 parking lots; 2.5 million square feet; 8,000 parking spaces.

Savings Summary: Barnes Hall saved 62,000 kWh, an 85 percent savings compared to the original parking lot design, resulting in $4,000 in electricity savings annually.

Camp Pendleton Marine Corps Base
The Marines achieved an astonishing 91 percent energy savings at a single parking lot by replacing 1,000-W high-pressure sodium light fixtures with 100-W induction light fixtures. In total, they averaged more than 60 percent energy savings at more than 100 different parking facilities.

Award(s): Highest Percentage Energy Savings in a Retrofit at a Single Parking Lot.

Technology: 100-W induction light fixtures (replaced 1,000-W high-pressure sodium light fixtures) to achieve the 91 percent savings.

Parking Specs: 118 parking lots; 6.2 million square feet; 19,000 parking spaces.

Savings Summary: 57,000 kWh saved, a 91 percent savings compared to the original parking lot design, resulting in $5,800 savings annually from reduced electricity usage.

Municipal Facilities
Perry Junior/Senior High, Perry, N.Y.

Perry Central School District (CSD) demonstrates its energy-efficiency smarts with a LEEP award for 81 percent energy savings at a single parking lot and an exemplary award for reductions at two other lots.

Perry CSD installed new energy-efficient light fixtures and programmed them to switch off between 12 a.m. and 4 a.m., when people generally don’t use the lots.

–Highest Percentage Savings in a Retrofit at a Single Parking Lot.
–Exemplary Municipal Parking Facility.

Technology: 60-W and 150-W LED light fixtures (replaced 175-W metal halide and 400-W high-pressure sodium light fixtures, respectively).

Parking Specs: two parking lots; 300,000 square feet; 900 parking spaces.

Savings Summary: 17,000 kWh saved, an 81 percent savings compared to the previous design, resulting in $1,700 in electricity savings for this single school.

Fairbanks Federal Building General Services Administration, Fairbanks, Alaska
Lighting controls are a significant feature for this upgrade because summers in Fairbanks have much more daylight than most American cities. In addition to energy savings, the new lighting provided better lighting color and quality. Improved user satisfaction and safety were top concerns because the parking structure’s lower level is used by the U.S. Marshals Service and the District Court.

Award(s): Exemplary Federal Parking Facility.

Technology: 43-W LED light fixtures (replaced 150-W high-­pressure sodium light fixtures).

Parking Specs: one parking structure; 100,000 square feet; 660 parking spaces.

Savings Summary: 180,000 kWh saved, a 74 percent reduction in energy compared to the previous design, resulting in $30,000 of electricity savings.

Quick-Service Restaurants
Arby’s aggressively implemented energy-efficiency upgrades, including improving the lighting at more than 90 locations (roughly 10 percent of their corporate locations).

–Highest Percentage Savings in a Retrofit at a Single Parking Lot.
–Exemplary Retail/Commercial Parking Facilities.

Technology: 270-W LED light fixtures (replaced 250-W and 400-W metal halide light fixtures).

Parking Specs: 90 parking lots; 1.8 million square feet; 5,600 parking spaces.

Savings Summary: Across the 90 sites, Arby’s on average is saving 12,000 kWh (an 87 percent savings compared to the previous designs) for $1,200 in electricity savings per year per site. For more than 90 sites combined, the energy savings is 700,000 kWh.

Georgetowne Homes and New Ecology, Hyde Park, Mass.

New Ecology, Inc., teamed with Georgetowne Homes to reduce the energy use and costs of its rental properties. Through this partnership, Georgetowne Homes saves $9,000 in electricity per parking site per year—an 84 percent energy savings compared to previous lighting.

One of the three LEEP awards this partnership won is for the best lighting controls. New Ecology deployed a wireless control system with occupancy sensors in which the lighting operates at full output during the evening hours when traffic is high and then in a reduced state overnight. The sensors increase the output of the fixtures when there is activity in the parking lot.

–Highest Percentage Savings in a Retrofit at a Single Parking Lot.
–Exemplary Residential Parking Facility.
–Best Use of Lighting Controls in a Single Facility.

Technology: 50-W and 135-W LED fixtures and lighting controls (replaced 150-W and 400-W high-pressure sodium light fixtures, respectively).

Parking Specs: one residential complex; 315,000 square feet; 1,000 parking spaces.

Savings Summary: 85,000 kWh (an 84 percent savings compared to the previous design) for $9,000 in electricity savings per year per site.

Higher Education
Nutwood & State College, California State University, Fullerton, Calif.

California State University Fullerton needed to replace the obsolete T12 fluorescent technology in two parking lots. The university made an intelligent retrofit choice that surpasses current code requirements and combined it with lighting controls for a savings of $120,000 in electricity annually.

Award(s): Exemplary Higher Education Parking Facilities.

Technology: 150-W and 125-W LED light fixtures and lighting controls (replaced 400-W metal halide and 48-W T12 fluorescent light fixtures, respectively).

Parking Specs: two parking structures; 1.4 million square feet; 4,500 parking spaces.

Savings Summary: 1.2 million kWh (a 72 percent savings compared to the previous design), leading to $120,000 in electricity savings.

University of Minnesota Gortner Avenue Parking Structure, St. Paul, Minn.
To date, the University of Minnesota has achieved 90 percent energy savings compared with its previous lighting system, with cumulative energy savings of more than 2.7 million kWh and $300,000 annually. A wireless lighting control system is operated in a mesh network that allows the university to track data, including time-base scheduling, occupancy sensors, and ambient light sensors.

–Highest Percentage Savings in a Retrofit at a Single Parking Structure.
–Best Use of Lighting Controls in a Single Facility.

Technology: LED light fixtures and lighting controls (replaced high-pressure sodium light fixtures); wireless lighting control system operated in a mesh network.

Parking Specs: two parking structures; 1.4 million square feet; 4,500 parking spaces.

Savings Summary: 400,000 kWh (an 89 percent savings) for $40,000 in electricity savings per year for one structure with a simple payback period of 5.1 years.

Health care
CHRISTUS Health Beaumont Harrison Garage, Beaumont, Texas

CHRISTUS Health reduced electricity costs by $3.6 million annually in 14 parking facilities (11,562 spaces), with $82,000 cost reductions from just one parking structure.

–Highest Percentage Savings in a Retrofit at a Single Parking Structure.
–Exemplary Healthcare Parking Facilities.

Technology: 30 and 200-W LED light fixtures (replaced 150-W and 1,000-W high-pressure sodium and metal halides light fixtures, as well as fluorescent light fixtures).

Parking Specs: one parking lot; 8.9 million square feet; 26,000 parking spaces.

Savings Summary: 800,000 kWh (a 87 percent savings compared to the previous design) for $82,000 in electricity savings per year for the parking structure that was awarded a separate award; for 14 facilities, 3.5 million kWh (60 percent reduction) in energy and $3.6 million in electricity reduction annually.

Kimco Realty Corporation

A LEEP Phase I winner, Kimco Realty Corporation is continuing its impressive energy-efficiency program by upgrading lighting and adding wireless lighting controls at 215 shopping centers (with 65.4 million square feet of parking at 850 facilities) for $160,000 in electricity savings per year. The corporation is predicting two- to four-year investment paybacks for the wireless lighting controls that are achieving up to 20 percent savings.

Kimco installed a system that allows managers to control and modify lighting use with a tablet computer for visual direct feedback of the light fixtures. The lighting control system includes electric current sensors, an atomic time clock, and multiple time scheduling options.

–Largest Absolute Number of Facility Upgrades.
–Largest Absolute Area of Facility Upgrades.
–Best Use of Lighting Controls in a Single Facility.

Technology: Web-based lighting controls.

Parking Specs: 215 parking lots; 65.4 million square feet; 200,000 parking spaces.

Savings Summary: More than 200 sites, resulting in 1.6 million kWh (a 18 percent savings compared to the previous design) for $160,000 in electricity savings per year.

Manheim New York Cox Automotive Group, Newburgh, N.Y.
Using a Central Hudson Electric Utility rebate, Cox saved the cost of two-thirds of the $430,000 project cost to replace metal-halide lighting with LEDs, saving $70,000 in utility costs annually.

Award(s): Highest Absolute Annual Savings in a Retrofit at a Single Parking Lot.

Technology: 200-W and 260-W LED light fixtures (replaced 400-W and 700-W metal halide light fixtures, respectively).

Parking Specs: one parking lot; 8.9 million square feet; 26,000 parking spaces.

Savings Summary: 700,000 kWh (a 69 percent savings compared to the previous design) for $70,000 in electricity savings per year.

Orange City Square Granite Properties, Orange, Calif.
Granite Properties demonstrated energy-efficiency leadership by selecting low-wattage LED light fixtures and optimizing the lighting to meet its specific needs.

Award(s): Exemplary Office/Industrial Parking Facility.

Technology: 75-W and 120-W LED light fixtures (replaced 250-W and 400-W high-pressure sodium light fixtures,

Parking Specs: one parking lot; 400,000 square feet; 1,200 parking spaces.

Savings Summary: 85,000 kWh (a 71 percent savings compared to the previous design) for $9,000 in electricity savings per year.

Principal Real Estate Investors, Austin, Dallas, Houston, Texas
Principal Real Estate Investors upgraded the lighting in 46 percent of its parking facilities (more than 5 million square feet with 11,000 spaces), saving 1.5 million kWh in energy and $150,000 in electricity annually with a return on investment of 29 percent and a simple payback of 3.4 years.

–Highest Percentage Savings in a Retrofit at a Single Parking Lot.
–Largest Percentage of Facilities.

Technology: low-wattage LED fixtures, high-wattage metal halide, and other sources (replaced medium- and high-wattage HID light fixtures and fluorescent fixtures).

Parking Specs: 14 parking lots and structures; 5 million square feet; 11,000 parking spaces.

Savings Summary: 14 sites for 46 percent of the portfolio with one stand-out site saving 76,000 kWh (a 87 percent savings compared to the previous design) for $7,800 in electricity savings per year.

Serramonte Center Equity One, Daly City, Calif.
Equity One installed new LED light fixtures and controls in a 2.5-million-square-foot parking lot,. The wireless control system is a peer-to-peer network with integrated sensors that operate in accordance with stored programmable profiles. Each sensor can reduce light output based on ambient light, as well as activity in the parking lot. When needed, the managers of the lighting system can access a website and modify the operating profiles of the fixtures and sensors.

Award(s): Best Use of Lighting Controls in a Single Facility.

Technology: 515-W LED light fixtures and a lighting control system (replaced 1,000-W metal halide light fixtures).

Parking Specs: one parking lot; 2.5 million square feet; 7,700 parking spaces.

Savings Summary: 300,000 kWh (a 63 percent savings compared to the previous design) for $28,000 in electricity savings per year.

USAA Real Estate Company Potomac Yard, Arlington, Va.

–Highest Percentage Savings in a Retrofit at a Single Parking Structure.
–Exemplary Office/Industrial Parking Facility.

Technology: 43-W LED light fixtures (replaced 175-W metal halide light fixtures).

Parking Specs: one parking structure; 300,000 square feet; 925 parking spaces.

Savings Summary: 1.2 million kWh (a 80 percent savings compared to the previous design) for $135,000 in electricity savings per year.

Zappos.com, Inc. Corporate Campus South Garage, Las Vegas, Nev.
In its LED retrofit, Zappos layered multiple control features together. Photocells monitor control light fixtures to reduce the energy and light output when ample daylight is available, and sensors monitor occupancy and adjust lighting accordingly.

–Best Use of Lighting Controls in a Single Facility.
–Exemplary Office/Industrial Parking Facility.

Technology: 80-W and 200-W induction light fixtures, as well as additional lighting controls (replaced 150-W and 400-W high-pressure sodium light fixtures, respectively).

Parking Specs: one parking structure; 200,000 square feet; 650 parking spaces.

Savings Summary: 300,000 kWh (a 72 percent savings compared to the previous design) for $30,000 in electricity savings per year.

Michael Myer is with the Energy and Environment Directorate of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. He can be reached at michael.myer@pnnl.gov.

Marye Hefty is with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. She can be reached at marye.hefty@pnnl.gov.

TPP-2015-12-And the Winners Are…

Sustainability and Parking

TPP-2015-12-Sustainability and ParkingBy Megan Leinart, LEED AP BD+C

One of the most popular and likely heavily debated subjects in the parking industry is sustainability. The topic has been one to elicit a significant amount of interest and excitement in public gatherings and mediums, along with a certain level of skepticism in more private settings (or at least minds).

In our industry, few issues have been as progressive and transformative as sustainability. Every element of the parking experience can somehow achieve a more sustainable alternative or process, including the planning and design of parking structures; the operations, management, and maintenance of parking facilities or lots; and reservation payment and space-finding alternatives. The markets have demanded this evolution, with some operators mandating sustainability in all areas. Educational and health care institutions, corporations, transit agencies, municipalities, and developers all want to reap the anticipated benefits that more sustainable practices can provide, including reducing effects on the environment, reducing operational costs, and, of course, keeping up with the competition when touting a cutting-edge approach to sustainability in marketing efforts.

On a macro planning level, the trend toward more effectively integrating parking into the overall fabric of communities, campuses, or neighborhoods—rather than isolating it as a completely separate entity—has resulted in a greater consideration of parking as a conduit to positively affect the human experience through promoting walkability, increasing mass transit and alternative transportation options, and reducing the dependence on single-occupancy vehicles. In many cases, this has helped reduce parking demand, creating opportunities for a more efficient use of often-limited land and preserving space for more community-centered uses such as public parks and green spaces, retail or restaurant establishments, residential properties, and more.

On a micro level, the increased focus on sustainability has given way to dramatic improvements in building design and technology. Parking planners and designers are constantly researching and developing new sustainable building materials, construction methods, and energy efficiency improvements. Further, technology experts continue to advance new and more innovative ways to reserve and pay for parking with the latest parking equipment and mobile applications.

The development of the Green Parking Council’s Green Garage Certification program has helped combine both the macro and micro elements of parking and sustainability, creating a structure for analyzing, improving, and showcasing real-life examples of cutting-edge parking and sustainability case studies. The program has succeeded in providing a comprehensive road map highlighting all of the many opportunities for integrating sustainability into management, programs, design, and technology. It has already become and will be a groundbreaking program that will continue to
transform the parking industry and promote innovative ideas and solutions.

Sustainability has and will continue to become a critical element of the parking industry moving forward. And it is important to understand the benefits and opportunities for not only your everyday professional life but the value that it can bring to your clients and the communities around you.

Several years ago, IPI had the forethought and understanding to see that sustainability would become a critical issue to the future of the parking industry. IPI wanted to exhibit to its members a strong commitment to research, education, and collaboration, and a dedication to leading the way in advancing and promoting the latest sustainability trends and technologies and the impacts to parking and transportation. As a result, IPI developed its “Framework on Sustainability for Parking Design, Management, and Operations.” The Framework (parking.org/sustainability) is a call to action, outlining the latest sustainable parking and transportation solutions and providing a guide for the implementation of these ideas.

IPI’s Sustainability Framework outlined action items and goals, which, thanks to the commitment of countless volunteers and IPI staff, have been more than met. Here’s a quick recap of just a few of those goals.

Deconstructing the Framework: Education

Development of sustainability education through seminars, webinars, and a designated IPI Conference program track.
IPI offers a wide range of educational programs, including regular webinars, sustainability-specific programming at state and regional conferences and the CAPP program, onsite training programs for front-line staff, and opportunities for sustainability education at its annual conference. You can check out all of these educational opportunities at parking.org, as well as the conference programming at the 2016 IPI Conference & Expo in Nashville, Tenn.

Articles and publications highlighting the latest sustainability trends and technologies.
Each month, The Parking Professional features The Green Standard column. Contributed by professionals from throughout the parking industry, The Green Standard provides readers with the latest sustainability-focused commentary and ideas related to parking and transportation. Last year IPI (partnering with the National Parking Association) released the first book solely focused on parking and sustainability. With chapter authors contributing a wide range of backgrounds, including design, technology, and management and operations, “Sustainable Parking Design & Management: A Practitioner’s Handbook” has become an important resource for those looking to learn more about the topic.

Encourage sustainable parking and transportation through exhibitor visibility.
IPI implemented the Green Star Exhibitor Program at its annual conference, recognizing those companies that are leading the way in sustainable management practices and operations. Exhibitors are able to promote the ways in which they promote sustainability in their everyday operations, as well as in the design and development of their products and services.

Recognize the achievements and improvements in sustainable parking and transportation through awards programs.
IPI encourages Awards of Excellence candidates to highlight their projects’ sustainable features. Sustainability has become an important criteria in the selection of Awards of Excellence winners, providing an added incentive to incorporating these solutions, as well as promoting them publicly.

Support the Green Garage Certification program.
The Green Parking Council is now an affiliate partner of IPI, with both organizations working together to promote the latest trends and technologies in parking and sustainability. At the 2015 IPI Conference, the duo recognized the first class of Certified Green Garages (see p. 26 for more)—truly a historic moment for the industry.

Deconstructing the Framework: Infrastructure and Natural Resources

In addition to the educational opportunities offered by the Framework, the ultimate goal is to incite real change in our industry, our communities, and the mindsets of those leaders and trailblazers in both. Within the Framework, IPI also outlined a series of more infrastructure-related goals meant to encourage the advancement of sustainable parking and technology ideas in our projects:

Use effective natural resource management and reduce waste.
The use of natural resources in infrastructure development is important to significantly reducing impacts to the environment, as well as operating costs. Energy provided by solar, wind, and geothermal sources do not consume fossil fuels or emit greenhouse gases but can result in opportunities to store energy onsite, or even sell unused energy back to the utility.

Framework Applied:
The Casino Reinvestment Development Authority in Atlantic City, N.J., understood the importance of utilizing alternative energy options during the development of its mixed-use parking facility, the Wave. The garage features a large solar array that when combined with Solar Renewable Energy Certificates, covers the energy costs of the parking structure. The garage also features a unique educational component in the garage that provides a real-time feed of the energy being used and the contribution of the solar power. This allows garage patrons to learn more about the sustainable efforts that the CRDA is implementing throughout the facility.

Focus on transportation demand management (TDM) issues. Advance and promote multi-modal transportation options, including walking, cycling, and mass transit, as well as decrease reliance on single-occupant vehicles and vehicle miles traveled.

TDM strategies can dramatically change the pleasant feel and efficiency of a community by providing options for reducing vehicle miles traveled and the dependence on single-occupancy vehicles. They also work by increasing travel options through supporting biking and walking routes, adding or improving public transit systems, and implementing policies and incentives to encourage alternative transportation. Effective parking management practices are also important TDM best practices, encouraging shared parking, utilizing effective land-use management, unbundling and taxing parking, and promoting mixed-use integration and density.

Framework Applied:
Stanford University has implemented a comprehensive TDM program, complete with free and discounted transit, vanpool subsidies, significant bike safety and infrastructure improvements, a campus-wide shuttle system that connects to regional transit and the community, data-driven program development, and a creative marketing and outreach program to encourage more sustainable commute behaviors. Stanford’s TDM program also incorporates a number of parking initiatives, including the addition of EV charging stations for vehicles and its growing number of 100 percent electric buses, preferred parking for carpools and vanpools, and the continued reduction of surface and street parking, while transitioning most new parking to below grade.

Encourage alternative energy sources and energy savings technology, reduce reliance on fossil fuels, and accommodate alternative fuel vehicles.

IPI, along with a number of like-minded associations, has led and supported the Lighting Energy Efficiency in Parking (LEEP) Campaign, which offers free guidance and recognition to facility owners interested in implementing energy-efficient lighting in their parking lots and facilities. To date, participants have collectively saved over 120 million kilowatt-hours and over $10 million annually (based on 430 million square feet of high-efficiency parking lighting). See p. 40 for more on this year’s LEEP competition.

Framework Applied:

The University of Minnesota upgraded the lighting in all 18 of its parking facilities at its Minneapolis campus to energy-efficient LED lighting and implemented lighting controls. As a result, the university achieved 90 percent energy savings and a 29 percent return on investment in just the first year.

As you can see, in just a few short years the tide has changed significantly in our industry, and there are now many opportunities and resources for the sharing of ideas, promotion of education, and implementation of new and innovative sustainable applications and technologies regardless of your involvement in the parking and transportation community. IPI is committed to continuing to push these goals forward and developing even more programs and resources for its members.

It is clear that sustainability will continue to be an extremely important topic not only in the parking industry, but in our communities, neighborhoods, and campuses as well. Governments, municipalities, and private entities will continue to enforce stricter demands related to sustainable community planning efforts, energy-efficiency strategies, and environmental building materials, all of which will significantly impact the parking landscape.

Owners and operators will seek improvements to the efficiency and economic viability of their parking facilities, while reducing the impacts to the environment as much as possible. Consultants and innovators will need to keep up with these demands by researching and developing more creative and cutting edge design strategies and technologies.

Now and into the future IPI and the GPC will be a force for proactively encouraging these practices. Together, they will continue to work with communities and government agencies to ensure that parking is effectively and appropriately considered so that it is seen as a positive influencer for sustainable planning and building practices, rather than a hindrance. Further, they will continue to provide the education, resources, and support needed to enable their members to keep up with these changing demands.

Now is an extremely exciting time in our industry. Until recently, “parking and sustainability” was considered an oxymoron, yet we are now experiencing some of the most innovative ideas we’ve ever seen. The value that these advancements will continue to provide in terms of knowledge, business opportunities, and environmental impacts are immense and will continue to drive advancement of the industry for many years to come.

Megan Leinart, LEED AP BD+C, is national director of corporate development for Propark America. She can be reached at megan.leinart@propark.com.

TPP-2015-12-Sustainability and Parking

A Class Apart

TPP-2015-12-A Class ApartBy Bill Smith

It wasn’t so long ago that “sustainable parking” was a bit of an oxymoron. But times change, sometimes drastically, and parking has embraced green practices. This year, seven facilities became the first in the world to earn Certified Green Garage designation—a milestone indeed.

IPI is proud to promote sustainability alongside the Green Parking Council and the Council’s Green Garage Certification program. Likened to the “LEED of parking,” Green Garage Certification is the world’s only rating system defining and recognizing sustainable practices in parking structure management, programming, design, and technology. Sustainability is vitally important today, and the industry is leading the way by helping to make parking greener.

The first class of Certified Green Garages is impressive in its thorough adoption of green materials, amenities, and management practices that save resources, encourage drivers to think a little greener when they get around, and make parking more sustainable. Learn more about Green Garage Certification at greenparkingcouncil.org/certified-green-garages/certification.


Charles Square Garage
Cambridge, Mass.

Owner: Carpenter and Company
Operator: Propark America

Located in the heart of Harvard Square in Cambridge, Mass., the Charles Square Garage is the first hotel garage to earn Green Garage Certification. The garage is situated beneath a mixed-use complex that includes the renowned Charles Hotel, a commercial office tower, condominiums, a fitness center, and a spa. The garage courtyards offer public space to the densely developed community, hosting a regular farmers market, as well as an ice skating rink in the winter.

The Charles Square Garage’s commitment to sustainability is apparent in its design. The structure promotes the use of energy-efficient vehicles, providing 10 small-car spaces; 12 to 18 (depending on the season) Zipcar carshare spaces; and four electric vehicle (EV) charging spaces that are offered to drivers for free. There is also a dedicated indoor bike storage area with room for 24 bicycles, and the hotel has its own bicycle lending program with six bikes.

The structure is also designed for reduced energy use. High-efficiency LED lighting provides both efficiency and heightened illumination.

Green parking elements extend to the facility’s management. The garage has a three-tiered pricing strategy based on vehicle size through which drivers of smaller, fuel-efficient vehicles enjoy discounted parking. There is also a shared parking program for tenants of the complex.


  • Extensive recycling program.
  • Green cleaning practices.
  • EnergyStar Portfolio Manager monitoring of energy use.
  • Active placemaking.
  • Green marketing program inside the garage and online.
  • Demand-controlled, sensor-activated ventilation system.
  • Renewable energy credits.


Bank of America Plaza
Los Angeles, Calif.

Owner: Brookfield Properties
Parking Operator: ABM Parking Services

The garage at Bank of America Plaza in Los Angeles promotes sustainability in a property that is the very definition of being green. The 4.21-acre plaza features a 55-story Class A office tower—the fifth tallest building in Los Angeles—and expansive public space that incorporates lush gardens, 240 trees, and three waterfalls. It is a true oasis in one of the world’s busiest cities.

The plaza’s garage is an essential element in the property’s commitment to sustainability. The nine-level subterranean parking facility offers 2,128 spaces beneath the plaza. The garage earned Green Garage Certification through a combination of sustainable design elements and management features that promote sustainability.

Green design elements include energy-efficient lighting and ventilation systems, both of which are operated through a sophisticated energy management system to achieve low energy consumption. The garage also promotes the use of alternative transportation in several ways, including an impressive bicycle storage room with showers, lockers, and tool station; direct access to multiple mass transit stations; a hybrid/EV carshare station; spaces reserved specifically for low-emission vehicles; and 10 EV charging stations that offer free charging for four hours. In addition to the 40 bicycle parking spaces located within the locked storage room, the garage also offers parking space for 60 additional bikes. The plaza also hosts an online portal that allows carpoolers to connect and arrange rides.

The garage features a number of impressive technological tools in addition to the energy management system. Efficient HVAC systems are controlled by 65 sensors and managed with schedules to ensure that fans only operate when needed. Also, a cogeneration plant uses natural gas to heat water or cool the chiller, with waste heat converted to electricity.

As impressive as these green design features are, the garage also promotes sustainability through its management elements. For example, 55 percent of the waste produced in the structure is diverted to recycling, and the complex boasts e-waste and compost programs. Additionally, loaner permits are made available for occasional commuters, and these loaner spaces are oversubscribed to optimize space sharing among these infrequent patrons. A fleet of seven alternative fuel vehicles that operate on electricity and natural gas provides shuttle services to tenants.

Finally, an onsite transportation manager assists tenants with connections to mass transit options or the property’s compressed natural gas shuttles for large groups.


  • 125 percent oversell of spaces through shared parking.
  • More than 50 percent of garage waste diverted from landfill.
  • More than 60 percent of recent construction labor was from local sources.
  • Placemaking initiatives.
  • Two hybrid shared vehicles for patron use.
  • 100 bicycle spaces.
  • 60 carbon monoxide sensors control ventilation systems.
  • Advanced lighting controls.


WestPark Corporate Center
Tysons Corner, Va.

property manager: Jones Lang LaSalle
Operator: SP+

The garage at WestPark Corporate Center, Tysons, Va., offers 1,486 parking spaces, including 30 vanpool spaces. Green parking design features include six EV charging stations and high-efficiency lighting controlled by occupancy sensors that have yielded 30 percent savings in energy costs. Well-placed recycling containers and tenant recycling training minimizes material sent to landfills.

The center boasts many sustainable management and programmatic features, including shared parking with area restaurants. Permits are oversubscribed by 30 percent to further promote shared parking. Additionally, a robust alternative transportation plan educates users on mass transit alternatives and facilitates and encourages vanpooling. EV discounts and onsite charging encourage parkers to consider alternatives to traditional vehicles.

Finally, a Green Globe-certified stormwater management program and efficient indoor water use combine to conserve water resources.


  • Restaurant and office shared parking with demand-responsive pricing.
  • Proactive operational maintenance.
  • Verified efficient mechanical and electrical systems.
  • Active transportation demand management programs.
  • EV charging at no charge and a rate discount for EV drivers.
  • Discounts and free parking for carpools and vanpools.
  • Sensor-controlled lighting systems.


Canopy Airport Parking
Denver International Airport

Owner: Och Zoff Capital Management Group
Operator: Propark

Canopy Airport Parking, adjacent to Denver International Airport, was designed with the goal of creating the most sustainable parking facility in the world. Since opening, it has earned numerous environmental design awards, including an IPI Award of Excellence for sustainability.

The facility offers 4,207 spaces: 2,708 open-air; 1,021 covered; and 478 valet. Of those, 150 are designated as green vehicle spaces for low-emitting and fuel-efficient vehicles. It boasts extraordinary energy performance and is 80 percent more efficient than a comparable facility with sustainable technologies. Operations are partially powered by onsite solar and wind farms, and the building is heated and cooled geothermally.

Canopy is largely constructed of recycled materials, including recycled steel and shingles. Other design features include energy-efficient LED lighting throughout the facility and eight EV charging stations: four in valet and four in the covered self park area.

Canopy also features a number of green programs, highlighted by a rideshare program in partnership with Silver Car, a technology-based rental car company. Also, the facility recycles more than 50 percent of its waste by offering recycling stations throughout the facility. A stormwater management program utilizes advanced erosion and sedimentation control plans.

Canopy has earned widespread recognition within and outside Colorado, including several national awards. It was also featured on the Travel Channel’s “Extreme Parking” program.


  • More than 75 percent of construction waste diverted from landfill.
  • More than 40 percent of construction materials were recycled.
  • Verified efficient mechanical and electrical systems.
  • Online reservations reduce patron circling.
  • Reserved spaces for low-emitting and fuel-efficient vehicles.
  • Payment system integrated with highway “fastpass” transponder.
  • EV charging stations offered at no charge.
  • High SRI roofing materials.
  • Solar array and eight wind turbines generate clean energy.


Silver Spring Metro Plaza Garage
Silver Spring Md.

Owner: Brookfield Office Properties
Operator: Impark

This four-level subterranean garage is located minutes from downtown Washington, D.C., at the Silver Spring Metro Plaza. The mixed-use structure offers 466 parking spaces and 700,000 square feet of office space. The garage boasts several sustainable design features, including high-­efficiency LED lighting managed by occupancy sensors that save 75,000 KWh. It offers two ChargePro EV charging stations and a bike room with space for 28 bicycles. Nine of the garage’s parking spaces are dedicated to a rideshare program, and three others serve Zipcar users.

The garage promotes sustainability in a number of ways, including discounted parking for fuel-efficient vehicles. Also, stormwater management policies include water reclamation on parking deck washing and a waterless car-washing amenity. Online reservations and pay-on-foot kiosks limit patron queuing and idling.


  • More than 50 percent of waste diverted from landfills.
  • 120 percent oversell of spaces through shared parking.
  • Green Seal-certified deck cleaners.
  • Online reservations.
  • Two carshare vehicles for patron use.
  • Discounts for drivers of alternative-fuel vehicles.
  • Free EV charging.
  • Lighting controlled by occupancy sensors.


BG Group Place Garage

Operator: Winpark

The BGGP Garage is a stunning, glass-encased parking structure adjacent to BG Group Place, a 46-story office building in the heart of downtown Houston. The 550,000-square-foot garage offers 1,118 spaces on 11 floors, two of which are below grade.

The BGGP Garage earned Certified Green Garage status through creative design elements and programs that promote sustainability. The signature feature of the design is a glass façade that, in addition to making the structure stand out as an architectural landmark, maximizes the amount of natural light that’s introduced into the structure.

The glass façade promotes sustainability by reducing the amount of electricity required to illuminate the interior of the garage. Electricity use is further reduced through the use of a sophisticated lighting control system that ensures lights are only turned on when needed. On the exterior, a rooftop garden reduces the building’s heat island effect, and a condensate recovery system collects condensation from the building’s air conditioning system to irrigate the garden. Other technological features include an automated vehicle identification system that allows passholders to enter and exit the facility without stopping and a system of carbon monoxide sensors that engages fans when CO levels exceed 250 ppm and shuts them off when levels drop below 100 ppm.

Programmatic and management features include several elements designed to promote alternate forms of transportation. The structure offers secure, illuminated, free bicycle parking with space for 16 bikes and a bicycle repair station. Fifty-six spaces—approximately 5 percent of the total—are reserved for fuel-efficient vehicles. The garage also offers premier access to the city’s Metro Light Rail system and bus lines. Houston’s B-cycle share station is also within walking distance.


  • More than 30 percent of garage waste diverted from landfill.
  • Proactive operational maintenance manual.
  • Verified efficient mechanical and electrical systems.
  • Reserved spaces for low-emitting and fuel-efficient vehicles.
  • Locator cards that educate patrons on the facility’s sustainable attributes.
  • Parker access to bike share program.
  • Green roof.
  • CO sensors that control ventilation.


Forest Home Garage
Ithaca, N.Y.

Owner/Operator: Cornell University
Cornell University’s Forest Home Garage, located under the LEED Platinum-certified Human Ecology Building, fosters the university’s mission of increasing energy use efficiencies and achieving carbon neutrality by 2035. The 254-space garage furthers the greening of the campus through both engineering and programmatic features.

The Forest Home Garage’s sustainable engineering features include three EV charging stations and an HVAC system that includes 17 demand-controlled air stations throughout the structure. The garage’s LED lighting system is controlled through an automatic programmable time clock that utilizes daylight sensors and calendar settings, and the facility offers covered bicycle parking for up to 30 bikes.

Programmatically, the university promotes space sharing by issuing 1,740 permits for the 254 spaces. The garage is also permit-restricted, which reduces wait and idle time by eliminating payment kiosks and booths. In addition to the EV recharging spaces (which also offer tire inflation), the garage also provides 38 spaces for ridesharing programs.


  • More than 200 percent oversubscription of permits.
  • ASHRAE Building Systems Commissioning.
  • Public space placemaking.
  • Financial incentives for rideshare users.
  • Bicycle amenities, including spaces, showers, and restrooms.
  • Landscaped areas featuring water-efficient plantings.
  • LED dimmable lighting controlled by timers and photo sensors.

Bill Smith, APR, is principal of Smith-Philips Communications and contributing editor to The Parking Professional. He can be reached at bsmith@smith-philips.com.

TPP-2015-12-A Class Apart

Green Thoughts

TPP-2015-12-Green Thoughts

Green parking is more than a catchphrase: It’s a new way of thinking about the parking industry and doing business in a way that’s attractive to employees, customers, and the bottom line. And it’s moving super fast, with advances and new developments almost every day. We asked four leading experts to share their thoughts on green parking, what it means, where it’s going, and how parking professionals in all sectors can get in on the action.

Mahesh Ramanujam is chief operating officer of the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) and president of Green Business Certification, Inc. (GBCI). He has a passion for people, the global business case for a sustainable built environment, and a strategic operational focus to a rapidly expanding organization that is certifying more than 1.9 million square feet of LEED commercial office space every day across the globe.

Laura Longsworth is vice president of parking operations for Brookfield, a commercial real estate corporation that owns, manages, and develops premier assets in the world’s most dynamic and resilient markets. She has furthered Brookfield’s commitment to sustainability, environmental awareness, and technological advancement for the company’s parking operations. She is a board member of the Green Parking Council (GPC), a longtime advocate for parking-industry certification programs, and responsible for the world’s first Certified Green Garage.

Andrew Mitchell is project manager for the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Better Buildings Alliance (BBA), an effort to promote energy efficiency in U.S. commercial buildings through collaboration with building owners, operators, and managers. In this role, he manages the technical solutions teams by balancing input from alliance members in the private sector, industry experts, and national labs. Prior to working at DOE, he held positions at General Electric, AEP Energy, and EnerNOC.

Paul Wessel is executive director of the Green Parking Council, home of Green Garage Certification. He has extensive experience in creating, troubleshooting, and managing community development projects uniting residents, businesses, public agencies, nonprofit boards and staff, and other diverse communities. His involvement as Connecticut’s director of traffic and parking led to the reorganization of the City of New Haven’s Traffic and Parking Department. He has been a board member of the Greater New Haven Clean Cities Coalition, New Haven Parking Authority, and Greater New Haven Transit District.

Why are parking and sustainability not mutually exclusive?

Mahesh Ramanujam: Parking and sustainability are not mutually exclusive concepts. Every story about green building is a story about people—and every story about parking is a story about the connection between people and planet. Through collaborative, integrated, and innovative green parking practices, we can promote sustainable mobility. This will enable our parking structures to achieve increased energy efficiency, reduced environmental impact, improved parking space management, integrated sustainable mobility services and technologies, enhanced performance, and stronger community relationships.

At USGBC, we work toward market transformation for the built environment through our globally recognized Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program. A global, regional, and local green building rating system, LEED helps us build green, healthy, and sustainable communities. Similar to how LEED has undeniably changed the built environment, implementing green building practices can transform the parking industry.

The Green Parking Council’s Green Garage Certification, the world’s only rating system for sustainable parking, was developed to create an industry-specific approach for recognizing green garages and draws from knowledge developed through experience with LEED certification and alignment with USGBC’s mission and goals.

Laura Longsworth: The demand for green parking and sustainable parking solutions is one of the most impactful on the industry. As everyone is talking about going green, consumers continue to seek environmentally friendly businesses. Across the board, companies are trying to improve their image and corporate social responsibility as it relates to sustainability. The parking industry is no different. Solutions such as LED lighting, solar power, electric vehicle (EV) charging stations, bike facilities, related amenity programs, etc., go a long way in improving the overall green image of the property.

Andrew Mitchell: 21st century parking is going beyond flat. More than ever, energy, water, and habitat are all fair game. Today, we can save energy with more efficient lighting and air handling. We can capture runoff from rain and snowmelt and re-use or redirect it. We can incorporate landscaping features, including native landscaping, in ways that limit energy use and water runoff while providing habitats for birds and insects.
Sustainable parking also comes with savings. Across the parking industry, owners are saving as much as 70 percent after upgrading lighting and adding control technology.

Paul Wessel:
I grew up in the in 1960s and ’70s against a backdrop of all those Apollo moon landings. In high school, I encountered the idea of “Spaceship Earth,” pioneered by the architect/philosopher/futurist Buckminster Fuller. The idea was that, like those space capsules we watched carry astronauts into space, we lived in this bubble, we had finite resources, and whatever garbage we produced, we had to account for. From that perspective, we had—and have—no choice but to do everything sustainably, to think about limiting resource use and reducing the crap we leave behind in all we do. Fifty years later, the idea is sinking in in how we run businesses, in how we run cities, and even in how we park cars!

Based on your organization’s mission, what do you see as your most important initiative during the next five years?
Laura Longsworth: At Brookfield, our mission is to provide the highest quality space (commercial, retail, residential, and hotel). An integral part of this goal is Brookfield’s unyielding commitment to programs that lower operating costs, reduce energy consumption, and curtail greenhouse gas emissions in all of our properties.

Environmental initiatives are a major component of the annual strategic business plan. Sustainability is a top priority within the company and is treated as a business objective along with revenue growth and risk management.

Andrew Mitchell: The DOE is working to create a clean energy economy. The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) leads the efforts through the Better Buildings Initiative, which was launched in 2011 to bring together building energy stakeholders to improve energy use intensity of the nation’s buildings by 20 percent by 2020. By partnering with leading organizations, Better Buildings supports the adoption of innovative organizational strategies and technologies by leveraging the sharing of successful models more broadly in the marketplace. For parking, that means promoting ever more efficient technologies so that lot or structure stays safe and bright year after year while using less and less energy from equipment that lasts longer and longer.

The Better Buildings Alliance has formed critical partnerships with key stakeholder groups, including the GPC, IPI, the Building Owners and Managers Association, and the International Facilities Management Association to organize the Lighting Energy Efficiency in Parking (LEEP) Campaign. This effort focuses on helping facility owners implement energy-efficient lighting solutions in their parking facilities by providing technical assistance and highlighting strategies participants find are the most impactful.

So far, LEEP participants are collectively saving more than 120 million kilowatt-hours and over $10 million annually. We invite parking facility managers interested in improving the energy efficiency of their parking facilities lighting to join us: leepcampaign.org.

Paul Wessel: Green Garage Certification has proven more transformative than I expected. From the individual garage manager to the architect to the developer, everyone is learning how to take fuller advantage of the sustainable opportunities in parking garages. Growing the program through our work with IPI, the USGBC, the Urban Land Institute, and others is how we will grow hundreds, if not thousands, of green garages during the next five years.

Mahesh Ramanujam: Our vision is simple: to build a healthy, smart, productive, efficient, equitable, resilient, and above all else, sustainable society so we can pass on a legacy of sustainability to our children, their children, and generations yet to come. To achieve this vision, GBCI, the organization that I am fortunate to serve as president of, has expanded to administer several other rating systems in addition to LEED, including PEER, the WELL Building Standard, the GRESB Benchmark, the Sustainable SITES Initiative, EDGE, and now, Green Garage Certification. These systems have a comprehensive scope and promote sustainable power system performance, human health and wellness, the economic case for green building/communities, sustainable landscape design, the mainstreaming of resource-efficient buildings and communities in more than 140 developing countries, and green parking policies.

How can the parking industry shift its practices for maximum environmental effect? Are there any smaller steps they should consider along with major changes?

Andrew Mitchell: A quick win for parking is updating the lighting to the most efficient and cost-effective option available. In addition to LEEP, there are a variety of technologies available to building owners to benefit from parking lighting system upgrades or replacements. Each measure can reduce cost while also improving safety. To help the industry pick the most advanced technologies, the Energy Department has been working with members of the Better Buildings Alliance to design a number of high-impact technology specifications that, when applied, can save building owners between 30 and 80 percent:

Wall Pack Lighting Specification and Application Guidance: Wall packs have been identified as an area in which the effective application of more efficient lighting dramatically improves lighting quality and energy performance.

Site Specification: Most parking lots are illuminated by older high-intensity discharge (HID) lighting technology without any energy-saving controls. New light-emitting diode (LED) technology with controls can cut parking lot lighting energy bills by 40 percent or more while delivering additional benefits, including long life, reduced maintenance costs, and improved lighting uniformity.

Parking Structure Lighting Specification: The latest high-efficiency lighting alternatives with energy-saving controls—including LED, induction, and fluorescent technology options—can save building owners more than 40 percent on their parking lot lighting bills.

Paul Wessel: Like every journey, every step counts. The feedback we’ve gotten from the industry is that looking at Green Garage Certification and going through the checklist of what you are doing, what you might do, and what you want to do, helps people develop the short-, medium-, and long-term approaches to building a high-performance parking program. Certification really is a road map; some people will arrive at the end tomorrow. Others will take a slower journey.

Mahesh Ramanujam: The parking industry has a unique opportunity: Buildings and transportation are the two biggest drivers of CO2 emissions globally, and investors, property owners, and consumers are looking for greener solutions. At this moment in time, we are being challenged to make a positive difference. We have it within our power to positively impact the quality of our built space. And Green Garage Certification is a key solution to achieve this and mitigate the current challenges associated with parking and, eventually, mobility.

The world’s only rating system defining and recognizing sustainable practices in parking structure management, programming, design, and technology, Green Garage Certification defines the standard for parking sustainability and the goal for parking owners and operators.

Laura Longsworth: Awareness is key. Parking facility managers really need to understand all aspects of their parking asset (purchasing, operations, mechanical, etc.). They also need to understand what it means to create a green garage program. The parking operator should be involved in preparing and presenting a five- to 10-year capital sustainability plan for the garages that they manage. This will help the property owner and the parking operator work together to create a reasonable, well-prioritized path toward sustainability. Going green is a complex process that needs to be taken one step at a time while replacing current methods and products with green ones. Parking operators should be out in front of this issue/opportunity leading this discussion.

How can parking professionals, organizations, and the industry help educate drivers/consumers about green parking initiatives and practices? Why is that important?

Paul Wessel: Pew Research found this summer that the three biggest worries globally are about climate change, terrorism (ISIS), and economic instability and that climate change was the most widespread concern of all the issues they asked about in the 40 countries surveyed. People know we can’t go on the way we are. They’ve seen the pictures of smog in China and of garbage patches in the ocean. They know about rising asthma rates. We all know things have to change but often we don’t know what we can do as individuals. The opportunity for parking professionals and our organizations is to promote what we are doing and what others can do.

Mahesh Ramanujam: Leaders across the globe understand that sustainability works. By committing to sustainability, they are actually committing to build healthier, more sustainable communities where performance and human health is prioritized and enhanced. The parking industry can help educate drivers and consumers about green parking initiatives and practices by leading by example, implementing green parking policies. Their exceptional vision will raise the bar high and transform the market.

Laura Longsworth: Having a green garage program is important. Being able to tell a meaningful story about the benefits of a green garage is equally important. At Brookfield, when we introduce new green amenity programs such as car share, virtual commuter bulletin boards, electric car charging, etc., we will always try to promote the sustainability angle.

Andrew Mitchell:
Parking professionals have always been clever about getting messages across to their consumers. The nice thing about lighting projects in parking is that they are obvious—they literally light up and the consumers can see the results for themselves. Clearly written and understandable signage can help consumers understand why a property manager has implemented sustainability measures.

What book or publication had the most impact on your view of sustainability? What should be required reading for parking professionals?

Laura Longsworth: I would encourage all parking professionals to read the Green Garage Certification Standard. Green Garage Certification is the world’s only rating system defining and recognizing sustainable practices in parking structure management, programming, design, and technology. You can learn more about this program and publication at greenparkingcouncil.com.

Andrew Mitchell: I am a fan of the website Energy Manager Today (energymanagertoday.com). I get updated headlines in my inbox every day and never think I will have time to read them, but when I click, I inevitably find a short article related to an energy issue that I am working on.

Paul Wessel:
That’s a tough one. I’ve been thinking a lot lately about the Ray Bradbury short story “A Sound of Thunder.” It’s about time travel, dinosaurs, and how, when we veer off the path, we can screw things up. Looks like there was a really bad movie version, but you can find the story online.

Why is sustainability important to you personally? What’s the most difficult or challenging change you’ve made to live in a more sustainable way?

Andrew Mitchell: I take the 1987 UN Brundtland Commission definition of sustainability seriously: meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Since becoming a father that is more clear to me. But even for those without kids, this can be reworded as “Don’t be a jerk to future generations. You might need them!”

Paul Wessel:
I’d like to leave the world in a better shape than I found it, not worse, so thinking about my physical impact on the planet is important to me. The most important thing I could do but haven’t yet is install solar panels on my roof. I looked into it but got stuck on what looked like I was signing a second mortgage. But I really should do it.

Mahesh Ramanujam: I grew up in India where 70 percent of the population is poor and urbanization is creating serious environmental challenges, including energy shortages, water scarcity, waste accumulation, and an air quality crisis. Sustainability is a mission grounded in the core beliefs of Indians everywhere—that we care for our fellow humans, our future generations and Mother Earth. Living sustainably has always been central to my beliefs—learning to use everything I had and making do without the things I did not.

Laura Longsworth: It is no secret that people are living longer and that the global population is on the rise. It is projected that there will be more than 10 billion people living on the Earth by the year 2100.

This explosion in population is perhaps one of the greatest reasons why sustainable development and green initiatives are so important. A rising population will also make use of the bare essentials of life, such as food, water, and shelter. The provision of these essentials is based around having an infrastructure that can sustain for the long term. Sustainable development is cleaner, has the potential to be more efficient, has long-term potential, and is the only way forward for a growing world economy. Over enough time, being sustainable will no longer be an option for people who want to feel good about their choices. It will be the only available option for cities and regional development. It isn’t just the current generation that needs to deal with this massive issue; it will be a challenge for future generations.

If all your dreams came true, what would parking look like 10 years from now? How would it change to be more green?

Paul Wessel: In 2025, I look forward to having a Spotify for mobility subscription, where I pay every month for easy access to whatever car, truck, bike, bus, train, sailboat, jet pack, or scooter I want to use to get from point C to point D. One price for access to everything. Parking is in the background—like the cloud—always there, ready for me to access my transportation modes from it, all around me, but out of sight.

Mahesh Ramanujam: We would have tangible results: a measurable reduction in CO2 emissions, a measurable reduction in traffic congestion in developing countries, a measurable reduction in pollution in the environment, and a measurable increase in human productivity. We would also ramp up sustainability in our built environment globally, achieving speed-to-market transformation for green parking and the built environment—and by extension, strengthen our planet and its people.

Laura Longsworth: In order to meet demand, stay relevant, and attract the transportation customer of the next generation, I believe that parking garages will continue to evolve into urban mobility hubs. These mobility hubs will combine intermobility, technology, sustainability while contributing to the community. In addition to providing traditional parking services, these locations will offer bike parking, shower/restroom facilities, car/bike share, transit services, travel information, Wi-Fi, refreshment stations, etc.

Andrew Mitchell: More trees in parking lots. More solar canopies and storage to power lights at night that keep us safe and use energy generated onsite. More walkways in lots. More permeable surfaces, water catchment, and filtration.

TPP-2015-12-Green Thoughts

Municipal Residential Permit Parking Programs Legal or Not

TPP-2015-12-Municipal Residential Permit Parking Programs Legal or NotBy Leonard T. Bier, JD, CAPP

Resident permit parking (RPP) is a well-established parking management tool throughout the United States. However, what we take for granted today was not a legal certainty until 1977.

Steve Monetti, former executive director of the Fort Lee Parking Authority, N.J., as well as a former member of the IPI Board of Directors and the longtime president of the New Jersey Parking Institute, requested that I draft the first RPP municipal ordinance, which was adopted in New Jersey for the city of Fort Lee. Since that time, I have drafted many RPP municipal ordinances for New Jersey cities.

Authority for an RPP
Recently, I was asked to prepare a legal opinion that outlines the authority for a city to create a restricted on-street RPP program. The city, which does not have a parking authority and is not active in IPI or other parking organizations, had the opinion that an RPP program would violate state and federal equal protection laws because it would grant residents on-street parking privileges not available to nonresidents.

It is important for municipal parking directors and their city or authority attorneys to know the legal origins of how RPP came into being. The U.S. Supreme Court, in County Board of Arlington County Virginia, et. al. v. Rudolph A. Richards, et. al. 434 U.S. 5 (1977) addressed the constitutionality of an RPP program and reversed a decision of the Virginia Supreme Court that said they violated the 14th Amendment—equal protection clause—by discriminating between residents and nonresidents.

The U.S. Supreme Court stated:
To reduce air pollution and other environmental effects of automobile commuting, a community reasonably may restrict on-street parking available to commuters, thus encouraging reliance on car pools and mass transit. The same goal is served by assuring convenient parking to residents who leave their cars at home during the day. A community may also decide that restrictions on the flow of outside traffic into particular residential areas would enhance the quality of life there by reducing noise, traffic hazards, and litter. By definition, discrimination against nonresidents would inhere in such restrictions.

In New Jersey, as in most other states, statues authorize a municipality to regulate parking within its geographic boundaries. Specifically the New Jersey statute allows a municipality to:

  • Prohibit general parking.
  • Designate restricted parking.
  • Designate time-limit parking.

However, even if states did not specifically grant a municipality the powers to regulate on-street parking, based on the authority of the US Supreme Court’s decision alone, a municipal ordinance, properly adopted and advertised, that establishes an RPP program in which certain on-street parking spaces are restricted to residents who display valid residential parking permits is a proper exercise of municipal power.

The Right Solution
Many cities and parking authorities have gone to great time and expense to build off-street parking facilities to accommodate the needs of employees, commuters, institutions of higher learning, hospitals, and entertainment districts. These off-street parking facilities are available to the parking public—resident and nonresident alike. Municipal on- and off-street parking is fee-based to pay the debt service for municipal bonds or notes, operating expenses, and fund capital improvement reserves.

The parking public prefers not to pay for parking and will drive around hunting for any available on-street free parking space. Allowing a city resident to return home with the possibility of finding an on-street parking space in proximity to his or her home is a reasonable expectation. RPP in the types of neighborhood parking environments previously described is the right solution for a city’s governing body to adopt.

Leonard T. Bier, JD, CAPP, is the principal of Bier Associates. He can be reached at lenbier@optonline.net or 732.828.8864.

TPP-2015-12-Municipal Residential Permit Parking Programs Legal or Not

The Country’s Greenest Conference

TPP-2015-12-The Country’s Greenest ConferenceBy JC Porter, CAPP

I recently returned from the Pac-12 Conference and am declaring it the greenest conference in the nation. I am certain there will be those who will disagree with my declaration, but after reading about the many accomplishments of Pac-12 schools, I invite dissenters to follow up this article with why your conference is the greenest.

The University of Arizona provides a bike valet for students while they attend classes. Fulfilling the “people” part of the planet, profit, and people equation of sustainability, U of A offers a ticket diversion program—if someone receives a parking citation but cannot pay, he or she can take an online course. This has been enormously popular with both students and university departments that use it to publicize their services.

At Arizona State University (ASU), every square inch that can be covered with solar panels has been, helping generate 25 megawatts of power. All students, faculty, and staff are issued solar-paneled hats to wear on campus (that’s a joke, courtesy ASU’s vice president for university business services). All joking aside, ASU will soon embark on a public-private venture to reach 50 megawatts of power and has implemented a campus access management plan for bikes, pedestrians, skateboards, carts, and vehicles to provide safe access for all modes of transportation. Infrastructure improvements, such as walk-only zones, golf cart pods, day-use cart parking areas, card-access bike facilities, shared-use paths, and skateboard parking racks, were implemented, and three bike valets run during the fall and spring semesters.

The University of California, Berkeley, is using technology to make the most of its limited parking areas. With a daily utilization rate of 85 percent, UC Berkeley is testing a locally grown app for demand-based parking pricing and rebates for those who choose not to drive.

The University of Colorado (UC) and the University of Oregon are doing great things. UC offers transit passes to all employees as a university benefit paid for by the university. Oregon has a new bus-tracking system to help increase ridership and customer service.

Oregon State University and Washington State University have zone permit parking. Both have seen better parking utilization as they have transitioned from a “hunting permit” system. They also have experienced an increase in customer satisfaction and a decrease in campus traffic as permit holders are now able to find spaces without circling.

Stanford University is moving toward an all-electric bus fleet, doubling the number of electric bus chargers to meet increased demand. For longer distance routes, Stanford uses double-decker coach buses that transport roughly 40 percent more passengers on almost the same amount of fuel. All shuttles are equipped to accommodate bikes.
UCLA has implemented three sustainability plans: a bike master plan, a climate action plan, and a sustainable transportation plan. UCLA has also installed EV charging stations, choosing Level I chargers and building the infrastructure while waiting for funding for Level II and III chargers.

The University of Southern California (USC) has taken its safe ride program to the next level. USC partnered with Uber to decrease wait times, using a resource that was already in place.

The University of Washington provides a commute concierge service that offers a personal touch for students, faculty, and staff to identify the best way to commute to and from campus. This program has become such a success that human resources promotes the service in the new-hire process

As you can see, the Pac-12 is the most sustainable conference in the country. If any other conference would like to try and compete, submit your school’s accomplishments to IPI’s Sustainability Committee via Rachel Yoka, yoka@parking.org.

JC Porter, CAPP, is assistant director, commuter services, at Arizona State University and a member of IPI’s Sustainability Committee. He can be reached at j.porter@asu.edu.

TPP-2015-12-The Country’s Greenest Conference

A First Taste of EMV

TPP-2015-12-A First Taste of EMVBy James Maglothin, PE, PMP

The liability shift for EMV payments has occurred. Owners and operators of paid parking facilities are either in the process of implementing EMV payment terminals or planning for the transition to an EMV solution. Guiding clients through the process has been both interesting and challenging. The industry has been inundated with information about the details of EMV and what the effect will be to parking payments in exit lanes. As it turns out, a good amount of the information has turned out to be inaccurate, and the learning process continues for all of us.

First, I should clarify that EMV ready does not mean EMV compliant. One parking owner has deployed new PARCS devices with EMV-capable readers but will not be EMV-compliant until the back-end clearinghouse has the entire end-to-end payment process certified. For this project that will involve having four different links in the chain of the approval process certified as in the diagram above.

EMV-ready readers are currently reading magnetic stripes and sending transactions for approval. True EMV end-to-end encryption using the chips on the cards will not be enabled until the entire process is certified. The banks give no indication when they will turn their attention to parking operations.

Early Frustrations
An immediate observation of the public’s use of the new terminals is that paying for gasoline at the pump has trained the public to use the dip-style credit card readers in a manner that does not work on EMV readers. EMV customers must leave the card in the reader until instructed to remove it; there is a one- to two-second period after insertion before the message is displayed to remove the card. Frequently, customers are observed inserting their cards and immediately removing them before the process is completed. Many customers are not reading the messages on the screen or supplemental instruction decals added by the parking operator and become quite frustrated after inserting their cards multiple times without making a successful payment.

Another challenge is having different slots in the PARCS device, one for ticket insertion and one for credit card insertion. It is not uncommon to observe customers inserting their credit cards into the ticket slot and receiving error messages. Even for customers who are used to using two different slots, the physical locations of the two readers on the PARCS device face make it difficult to reach both slots for low- and high-profile vehicles unless the vehicle is positioned correctly.

Of greater concern is that initial indications are that the transaction processing time will be lengthened by approximately 10 seconds once the full EMV-complaint solution is activated. It is likely that as customers get used to using the new devices the frustrations will subside. Also, many of the nuances experienced at this parking facility are unique to the particular EMV reader and PARCS devices being used, so reader and PARCS configurations from different manufacturers will likely reveal a different set of challenges. The good news is that the public will be encountering EMV payment processes at more and more locations outside of the parking industry, which will serve to accelerate the education process.

James Maglothin, PE, PMP, is director of car park management systems at Walker Parking Consultants. He can be reached at james.maglothin@walkerparking.com.

TPP-2015-12-A First Taste of EMV