Tag Archives: TPP

Parking & Mobility: Writers’ Guidelines

Parking & Mobility, the magazine of the International Parking & Mobility Institute (IPMI), invites article submissions from members and outside contributors.
Before you write, here are 10 things to remember.

  1. It’s a good idea to let us know ahead of time what you’re thinking about. Email a brief outline of your idea to editor@parking-mobility.org.
  2. We work about three months ahead. Articles for the October issue, for example, are due in mid-July. We usually plan farther ahead than that.
  3. Articles should provide useful how-to information through case studies; share new technologies and their applications; report emerging trends; or discuss relevant and pivotal issues to the parking and mobility industry. They may not promote or sell a company, product, or service (please submit new product releases online at parking-mobility.org/news-events-and-blog-submissions/ for publication in the Around the Industry section).
  4. All submissions should be sent in Word format. Spotlight articles (usually case studies) are about 1,000 words plus two photos; other features are 1,500 – 2,500 words with multiple photos/charts/graphs/art. We are happy to find art for your story if you don’t have photos.
  5. If you are sending art, please submit original hi-res (300 dpi or better) photos or illustrations in .jpg or .tiff formats. We cannot extract photos or graphs from Word documents! Only submit art that you own or have explicit permission to publish—we cannot use art from the internet. Be sure to send us a headshot of each author, and submit charts/graphs in Excel, PowerPoint, or PDF.
  6. All articles and their elements are subject to editorial review; it is the author’s responsibility to ensure all information is accurate and that proper credit is given when due. We edit all articles for style, format, space, and readability.
  7. All published material is copyrighted and becomes the property of the International Parking & Mobility Institute. Authors will be expected to sign a standard written release. Submission implies that authors agree with IPMI’s policies.
  8. We only publish original pieces. Please do not submit an article that is under consideration, has been accepted, or has been published elsewhere.
  9. All articles are voluntary submissions. There is no payment for publication.
  10. Don’t forget to send us your bio! Name, title, company, and email address.

Please send all submissions to editor@parking-mobility.org.

The California City Embracing the Future of EVs

By Taylor Kim, AIA, LEED AP

HOME TO ELECTRIC VEHICLE (EV) PIONEER TESLA, it is no surprise that the city of Palo Alto, Calif., leads the nation in electric vehicle sales at nearly 30 percent of new cars sold. As the city has embraced this technology and its role as an EV am­bassador, it has enacted some of the most robust EV parking requirements in the country.

In 2014, Palo Alto established itself as a pioneer of EV legislation when it passed a first-of-its-kind law that required new homes, apartments, office buildings, and hotels to be wired for EV charging. To encour­age adoption, the city offered a variety of incentives such as free EV charging; a $30,000 rebate to offices and residential complexes that install chargers; and a streamlined permit process for residential EV parking. The city’s current goal is to have 6,000 residential EVs by 2020 and 19,000 by 2030. This proactive legisla­tion has proven remarkably successful; Palo Alto’s EV charging spaces are currently at around 40 percent occupancy.

The Cost
Providing this much EV infrastructure comes at a high cost. According to the U.S. Department of Energy, a single level 2 charging station—Palo Alto’s standard—can cost up to $65,000 with an additional $12,700 for installation. EV charging points also lead to an in­crease in electricity demand; Palo Alto projects a 6 to 7 percent increase when EVs dominate the automobile market. However, when this infrastructure is includ­ed during initial construction verses a future retrofit, much of the cost can be mitigated.

Armed with this knowledge, when Palo Alto needed more public parking to support a new public safety building planned for downtown, the city saw an opportunity to invest in the electrical future they wished to achieve. When the new California Avenue parking structure opens in 2020, 25 percent of the 630 parking spaces will be wired for EV charging, with 5 percent, or 32 spaces, accessible on its first day of operation. The remaining 125 spaces will have wiring in place so that charging stations can be installed in the future.

Such ambitious EV requirements pose unique design challenges to accommodate the increase in both electrical capacity and load. The transformer at the California Avenue Garage had to be upsized to be able to accommodate chargers for 125 future EV spaces. To lessen the overall power demand, 95 percent of the EV spaces in the facility will use power-sharing dual chargers. When two cars are plugged into a dual charger, each will receive 50 percent power, which will decrease the electrical requirements by almost half of that used by single chargers.

Providing sufficient EV accessibility requires careful consideration as well. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) does not provide a national standard when it comes to EV, but the state of California has stringent requirements when it comes to EV accessibility. For the California Avenue Garage, this means the number of required EV accessible charging spaces is calcu­lated based on the facility’s total number of charging stations rather than the total number of accessible spaces, increasing the number of accessible spaces re­quired. Providing the additional spaces and clearances to accommodate this can in turn affect the overall stall count and efficiency.

When the new California Avenue parking structure opens in 2020, 25 percent of the 630 parking spaces will be wired for EV charging, with 5 percent, or 32 spaces, accessible on its first day of operation. The remaining 125 spaces will have wiring in place so that charging stations can be installed in the future.

Looking Ahead
As demand for EV charging continues to increase, effi­cient utilization of charging infrastructure will become more and more important. Cars that monopolize spaces long after they are done charging mean less charging for others who need it. For example, when someone parks in an EV charging space on an office campus, that person isn’t likely to move his or her car when it is finished charging so someone else can use the space. That means a single space may only charge one car throughout the workday. To address this, some Palo Alto office campuses, such as Facebook, use EV valets who unplug a car once it is fully charged and move the cable to the next car.

Such adaptations are critical to the development of EV infrastructure and important to bear in mind when consider­ing the projected future of EVs in the United States. While EV sales currently make up only 2 percent of the national market share, by 2025 that number is expected to increase to 7 per­cent, with around 1.1 million EVs sold. Other automakers are also hopping on the EV bandwagon. According to Bloomberg, the number of EV models on the market is predicted to dou­ble by 2022. Palo Alto’s accomplishments and dedication to promoting EVs and providing EV infrastructure can help us better understand how to prepare for an electrified future.

Read the article here.

TAYLOR KIM, AIA, LEED AP, is a project manager at Watry Design and a member of IPMI’s Sustainability Committee.. She can be reached at tkim@watrydesign.com.


An Automatic Winner

A Philadelphia project adds automated parking and gains fast loyalty with residents.

By Ian Todd

PRESCRIBED PARKING MINIMUMS and concern about the anticipated effect of TPP article P&M Automatic winnerautonomous vehicles (which some would argue is overhyped) may help form developers’ views on the importance of parking. However, some developers view parking, or rather fully automated parking, as an essential amenity in their developments and have even found it to be the amenity buyers value the most. One such developer is Scannapieco Development Corporation (SDC) based in Philadelphia, Pa.

SDC recently implemented an 86-space fully automated parking system in its 500 Walnut project. 500 Walnut, a 26-story residential tower at the corner of Philadelphia’s Fifth and Walnut streets features 35 condominium residences and an impressive list of high-end amenities that make it one of the city’s most exclusive, luxurious residential projects to date.

The 500 Walnut Project Targeting the ultra-high-end residential market, SDC has had the ongoing record of the highest condominium sale price in the city for almost 10 years. To help to ensure this project’s success, SDC looked to improve its list of high-end amenities for 500 Walnut by implementing an automated parking garage. SDC sought a vendor that could provide a system that used multiple pieces of equipment to park and retrieve vehicles, providing greater system redundancy, which minimizes system downtimes and increases convenience for residents. The system also had to provide full support services
such as 24-hour remote monitoring and support and the ability to be onsite within a very short timeframe should an issue arise.

The Parking System

The state-of-the-art, 86-space automated parking system is located in the basement of 500 Walnut. Westfalia worked closely with SDC and project architect Cecil Baker + Partners to ensure the parking system efficiently integrated with the building structure and maintained the ultra-luxury aesthetics where the residents interacted with the parking system in the two transfer areas on the first floor. Opened in early 2018, 500 Walnut uses a system that collects vehicles directly from the concrete floor of the two basement levels, allowing a high throughput.

Residents of 500 Walnut drive up to the building and a transponder in their vehicle sends a message to open the outer garage-style door, allowing them to enter the luxurious marble auto court area. Once in the auto court, the outer door closes and a transparent transfer area door opens in front of them, allowing them to park their vehicles in the correct position with guidance from an instruction screen. The residents then use a sleek touch screen immediately outside the transfer area to answer a set of standard questions and confirm they wish to park their vehicle in the system; the transfer area door then closes, and the automated system handles the rest. Residents have then completed the parking process in a private, hassle-free manner and then take the personal elevator to their condominium. No one has to get into the resident’s vehicle, meaning residents can safely leave their personal belongings in the car without fear of tampering.

Once the transfer area door has closed and locked, the system scans the transfer area to ensure there are no people present. The vehicle is then lowered to a basement level where the mechanism drives under the vehicle, clamps its wheels, and transports it onto the transfer car. The vehicle lift can then return to the ground floor to allow another vehicle to enter the transfer area while the previous vehicle is being parked.

To retrieve their vehicles, residents can either swipe their fob at the reader in the personal elevator or at one of the fob readers immediately outside the transfer areas (or they can call down to the concierge to retrieve their vehicle for them). Once their fob has been read, the system retrieves the vehicle from its parked location and moves it to the vehicle lift, which raises the resident’s vehicle to a transfer area on the ground floor. On one of the touch screens adjacent to the transfer areas, the residents are given an estimated wait time—which averages just over two minutes—for their vehicle to be returned to the transfer area. When the vehicle lift is at the ground floor, the door opens, allowing the resident to enter the vehicle and drive it forward out of the transfer area to exit the property on to Fifth Street. The transfer area door closes as soon as the sensors indicate the vehicle is no longer present.

The parking system at 500 Walnut is equipped with two levels of parking with two individual transfer cars that can move within an aisle to store and retrieve vehicles. The palletless system transports vehicles into the parking garage and positions them directly on a concrete or steel deck. Building construction can be based on concrete or steel or a combination of both, depending on project location and the client’s construction preference.

The Amenities

This system was customized for this specific development. Pictorial representations of the system and equipment pieces and simplified user screens were created to allow non-technical personnel to easily interact with the parking system. The concierges at 500 Walnut also have access via a terminal at their desk, allowing them to perform certain functions such as retrieving vehicles and permitting residents’ visitors to use the system.

500 Walnut’s facility offers:

■■ Cost- and time-efficient parking.

■■ Increased safety.

■■ Less human involvement and fewer human errors than traditional systems.

■■ Convenient 24/7 access.

Read the article here.

IAN TODD is director of automated parking systems at Westfalia Technologies. He can be reached at itodd@westfaliausa.com.

Unpacking the APO: Approach to Sustainability


IPMI LAUNCHED THE ACCREDITED PARKING ORGANIZATION (APO) program with a focus on excellence in our industry. The APO program recognizes parking, transportation, and mobility organizations at the top of their game—these organizations can be recognized at one of two levels (Accredited and Accredited with Distinction). In identifying excellence and establishing criteria, IPMI created 14 categories that represent critical operational areas, including but limited to:

  • Governance and Organization.
  • Financial Budgeting and Management.
  • Customer Service; Asset Maintenance.
  • Safety, Security, and Risk Management.
  • Sustainability and Access Management (Transporta­tion Demand Management [TDM]).

The Sustainability (and Access Management) sec­tions contain three required items. Applicants must demonstrate 25 required items in total, which establish a baseline for success. These criteria are often broadly defined and may be achieved through a variety of means (and accompanying documentation).

Realistic Goals
The good news: It’s relatively simple to document because the APO program was designed for every organization, allowing tremendous flexibility in how to provide information. Although many of the criteria touch on the triple bottom line, these required ele­ments must be achieved:

  • Demonstrates a strategic commitment to environ­mental sustainability. (Sustainability Criteria 10.1).
  • Demonstrates implementation of sustainable prac­tices that showcase a direct reduction in energy or resource use. (Sustainability Criteria 10.2).
  • Demonstrates a commitment to reducing or distribut­ing travel demand. (Access Management Criteria 11.1)
  • Documentation for achievement of Criteria 10.1, or strategic commitment to environmental sustainability, could include:
  • A sustainability master plan or annual report for the organization demonstrating strategic objectives, benchmarking, and outcomes.
  • A section of the organization’s website that show­cases goals, strategies, and programming to de­crease the reliance on the single-occupant vehicle and diversify transportation modes and alternatives.

The really good news: Either of these items could potentially document all three of the required criteria!


10.1 Required: Demonstrates a strategic commitment to environmental sustainability.

10.2 Required: Demonstrates implementation of sustainable practices that showcase a direct reduction in energy or resource use.

10.3 Provides incentives to promote use of low-emitting and fuel-efficient or alternative-fuel vehicles.

10.4 Demonstrates use of alternative-fuel fleet vehicles.

10.5 Provides payment system in parking facilities to reduce idling upon exiting.

10.6 Recycles or repurposes materials and equipment.

10.7 Uses energy-efficient lighting systems and/or controls in parking facilities.

10.8 Uses energy-efficient, environmentally favorable heating ventilation and air conditioning systems and/or controls in facilities requiring ventilation, or facilities designed without mechanical ventilation.

10.9 Uses halon-free fire-suppression systems.

10.10 Demonstrates planning for continued sustainability gains.

Accredited with Distinction Criteria

10.11 Achieved Parksmart Certification, LEED Certification, Green Globes rating, or equivalent certification for at least one parking facility.

10.12 Posts policies regarding sustainability in prominent public space.

10.13 Manager(s) directly responsible for day-to-day parking operations has earned and maintained a qualified environmental sustainability credential.

10.14 Implemented external wayfinding system to reduce time spent searching for a parking space.

10.15 Implemented internal wayfinding system within parking facility or facilities to reduce time drivers spend locating a space.

10.16 Installed and maintains electric vehicle charging stations.

10.17 Provides tire inflation stations or mobile tire inflation services.

10.18 Implemented water-reduction technologies/strategies.

10.19 Roofing system designed to reduce heat-island effect and/or provide stormwater mitigation.

10.20 Generates renewable energy on site, and/or purchases renewable energy credits.

10.21 Provides proactive parking facility maintenance plan.

10.22 Uses permeable materials in at least in one surface parking facility.

Earning APO
To become accredited, an organization must meet at least 80 percent of the remaining criteria (in addition to the 25 required items). Refer to the summary chart for a snapshot of the criteria as they relate to sustainability. Those familiar with LEED and/or Parksmart will notice that the criteria may seem similar—they are designed to be mutually reinforcing and recognize the same objectives as identified in the IPMI Sustain­ability Framework. APO is a comprehensive accreditation (not just a sustainability one), yet the program acknowledges the value and importance of sustainability (and TDM) initiatives in a comprehen­sive approach to excellence.

IPMI will recognize our newest APOs on stage in San Antonio, Texas, at the 2020 IPMI Conference & Expo, and there’s plenty of time to complete the process before the February 1, 2020, deadline.

Want to find out more? Visit parking-mobility/apo or reach out to us at apo@parking-mobility.org.

Read the article here.

RACHEL YOKA, CAPP, LEED AP BD+C, WELL AP, is IPMI’s vice president of program development. She can be reached at yoka@parking-mobility.org.


ON THE FRONTLINE: That’s Karma, Vincent

By Cindy Campbell

ONE OF THE RUNNING JOKES I HAVE WITH FRIENDS centers on the theory that I have good parking karma—or is it CARma? (I digress.)

Let’s focus on the concept of karma for a minute. It’s been said that there is no such thing as luck and that we make our own luck. I believe the same can be said about having good karma.

To illustrate, let’s consider a recent travel experience I had: One of my flights was delayed, causing me to miss connections. The end result was a two-hour Uber ride to arrive at my final destination. Fully anticipating a long, unpleasant ride, I dreaded requesting the car. But rather than creating a self-fulfilling prophecy, I did a little self-talk, changed my attitude and outlook, and decided it actually had the potential of being an inter­esting journey.

Meeting Vincent

Driver “Vincent” called me in advance of his arrival. He knew the curb designated for transportation network companies would be chaotic and wanted to coordinate with me in advance of the pick-up. Once at the curb, he exited his car and greeted me with a warm smile and a handshake: “Welcome! Let’s get you settled in for a comfortable ride.” He knew this was going to be a long trip and made the effort to put my mind at ease. With his congenial approach, Vincent had already conveyed that this trip would likely be a pleasant experience.

As he drove, we chatted about the challenges with air travel and about our respective families. Vincent had served as a pilot in the Air Force. After his mil­itary service, he worked as a special assistant to a now-­retired airline CEO. Vincent saw this executive as a mentor who projected a professional passion for al­ways putting the customer first.
That revelation led to a conversation on the topic of how badly people sometimes treat customer service representatives. I told him stories about the parking and mobility industry and the disrespectful attitudes and behaviors our frontline professionals encounter. “You know, I’d never really considered what you folks have to deal with. That’s gotta be a tough job!”

Vincent was right. It can be tough. As service professionals, we understand that people can be downright mean and disrespectful. They can be intolerant, dismissive, and unwilling to take personal responsibility.

The Good Stuff

I told him, “While that’s true, I also have to say that on a daily basis, we encounter plenty of good people. Kind people. People who recognize and appreciate what we do to keep everything circulating and safe. The problem is when we fail to recognize this, when we only remember and recognize the unpleasant contacts, it can make our work life so much less fulfilling.” For the rest of the drive, we shared positive, sometimes funny, stories about people we had each encountered over the years. Time flew.

Two hours later, we arrived at my destination. Vincent got out of the car and placed my bags on the curb. He shook my hand again. “Ms. Campbell, this trip has been the highlight of my week. I can’t entirely put my finger on why, but I feel happi­er—and that was a long drive! Thanks for that.”

That’s karma, Vincent.

A chance encounter presented the opportunity to extend a positive attitude, or karma, toward another person in hopes that he would return the favor. On this day, my effort was not in vain.

The reality is that I could have missed out on an amazing human encounter had I not caught myself and adjusted my attitude. We can be our own worst enemy when it comes to dealing with the bad attitudes hurled our way. When we choose to extend the proverbial olive branch to others—even when they don’t seem to deserve it—we sometimes have the ability to turn a negative encounter into something special.

Read the article here.

CINDY CAMPBELL is IPMI’s senior training and development specialist. She is available for onsite training and professional development and can be reached at campbell@parking-mobility.org.


Looking Ahead: Moving Faster

The changing mobility ecosystem and its effects on the parking industry.

By Nathan Berry

THE TRANSPORTATION INDUSTRY has been transformed in the past few years, and 19-08 Looking Ahead: Moving Fasterinnovation shows no signs of slowing down. There are many new forms of transpor­tation, and citizens have dozens of options at their fingertips—public transit, electric scooters, dockless bikes, ride-hailing services, personal and shared vehicles—and autonomous vehicles are on the horizon. All of these modes are competing for valuable curb space, creating new challenges for cities to manage.
With all of these unprecedented changes and the As new modes of mobility are introduced, a new set fast pace of innovation, private companies, cities, and of challenges is forthcoming that expands beyond the universities are striving to stay on top of the trends traditional parking environment. Through conversa­and lead the industry by implementing more technolo-tions with city and mobility leaders, I have identified gy to improve and better manage their complex mobil-a few common themes organizations are trying to ad­ity ecosystems. dress as they strive to decrease congestion and create
more livable communities:

  • Managing the curb.
  • Collaborating among modes (parking, transit, micro-mobility, etc.).
  • Dealing with the introduction of scooters and dock-less bikes.
  • Leveraging technology for mobility management.

Curbside Management
In the past, parking departments have had a primary focus on managing the rates and rules for parking and making sure drivers had a way to pay. But changes in the industry now require parking leaders to think about the bigger picture and how their operations can better manage the curb. It is no longer just about on-street parking and the choice of paying with a meter or a mobile phone; today’s leaders are facing challenges with electric scooters crowding the sidewalk and ride-hailing vehicles stopping at the curb to pick up and drop off riders. To make cities more livable for their citizens and continue driving economic growth, city and parking leaders need a way to understand and manage their unique mobility ecosystems.
As cities make way for the future of mobility, it will be critical to consider autonomous vehicles and other innovations that will require digital systems for operations. Currently in many areas, the curb is managed offline as rules, rates, and regulations live on physical signage or on non-connected systems, which can lead to confusion for drivers and enforcement officers. As new modes of transportation use the curb, centralized digital man­agement is becoming a necessity. Cities can better understand what’s happening on their streets and make decisions to im­prove congestion and centralize the issuance and validation of access to the curb (parking rights, essentially) in order to make the city more livable, efficient, and equitable.

Coordinating this exchange of information, which often requires collaboration with private companies, requires the city to play a new role. To ensure access without stalling in­novation, municipalities have to start leveraging technology to centralize data across modes of transportation so they can make data-driven decisions about how to provide equitable transportation options.

One successful example of effective curbside management is a pilot program with Lyft in San Fran­cisco, Calif. Riders who requested a Lyft on Valencia Street—one of the busiest When cities and parking leaders areas in the city—were directed to a have more control, they can side street to meet their rides instead of manage a complex mobility
blocking the curb on the main street. As a result, average vehicle speed on Valencia
increased, improving the flow of traffic. This small behavior shift for each indi­vidual, amplified across the thousands of people using Lyft in this area, has creat­ed a larger positive outcome for the city.

Mix-modal Collaboration
With so many possibilities for getting around a city, citizens can use multiple modes of transportation to get from point A to point B, but they are forced to manage each mode separately. Agencies are recognizing this trend and shifting from mode-oriented to user-oriented services.
The shift to mix-modal is well-demonstrated by Miami-Dade’s Department of Transportation and Public Works in Florida. In 2016, Miami-Dade reorganized its entire trans­portation system under one umbrella agency to embrace the idea of mobility management and improve the transportation experience for citizens. More cities are considering a similar consolidation and approach as they understand that when parking, transit, and micro-mobility are managed collectively, it leads to more collaboration and provides a holistic view of mo­bility challenges and opportunities. With more data available, leaders can make better decisions for positive city outcomes.
We’re also seeing a convergence of transportation options that focus on the user journey, especially when it comes to first mile/last mile solutions. In April 2018, the Charlotte Area Transit System (CATS) in North Carolina, announced a partner­ship with Lyft to offer subsidized rides for users of its CATSPass app. Passengers who originate or terminate a trip at specific sta­tion locations receive a contribution toward their Lyft fare. With this partnership, CATS was able to increase public transit usage in the city by providing options to use multiple forms of trans­portation in a single journey, streamlining the user experience.

Scooters and Micro-mobility
In 2018, scooter companies dropped thousands of scooters in cit­ies across North America, creating great excitement and debate among citizens, city leaders, and mobility companies. With both Lime and Bird boasting more than 10 million scooter rides taken to date and the continued expansion into more cities in the U.S. and abroad, micro-mobility management has risen to the top of challenges that city and parking leaders face.
Many cities responded initially by implementing systems and rules intended to minimize disruption by limit­ing access to their curbs and streets. But by focusing on the challenges, cities risked missing the opportunity to incorporate new modes of transportation to make their cities more equitable and livable. In the subsequent months, cities have begun the process of building systems to co­ordinate fleets of micro-mobility vehicles, including the creation of data standards and data-sharing agreements with scooter pro­viders. As those initiatives mature, cities will need to use shared data to ensure the alignment of incentives between public and private sector participants.

Cities and micro-mobility companies have an interest in creating a system in which all parties—end-users, the city, and the micro-mobility companies—can benefit. With a shared data system that can help scooter companies balance supply and demand, citizens will have greater access to transportation op­tions, cities can better control and manage the scooters on their streets, and micro-mobility companies can optimize the number of vehicles available.

Leveraging Technology
The new innovations in our industry have the potential to posi­tively affect cities and their citizens, but the missing piece is of­ten having the right technology to implement desired solutions. Organizations are looking to implement technology that creates simpler and more efficient systems for drivers, enforcement officials, and city leaders, while providing unprecedented access to data about parking trends, behaviors, payments, enforcement officer routes, and more, all in real time. This information is the key to tackling broader city initiatives, such as ensuring equi­ty, reducing congestion, and fostering innovation, and allows transportation leaders to make data-driven decisions for better mobility management.

Parking and transportation leaders understand the impor­tance of technology, but there are many options to consider. The first step is to help leaders better understand mobility trends by leveraging technology to manage all forms of trans­portation in one place. A mobility platform is the solution, al­lowing cities to connect multiple mobility services (mobile pay for parking, digital permits, parking enforcement, meters, mi­cro-mobility, ride-hailing services, and more) in a centralized hub. Cities then have real-time access to data to help identify trends, make informed policy decisions, and effectively code the curb. The platform can also house information about rates, rules, and regulations, which can then be pushed out to all of the connected services.

With a more connected system, it becomes easier for cities to make adjustments, big and small, that will influence the daily decisions citizens make about how to travel throughout the city. When cities and parking leaders have more control, they can manage a complex mobility ecosystem and ultimately, provide a positive experience for their citizens and promote economic growth in a sustainable way.

The bottom line is that cities, universities, and agencies are facing many of the same challenges, regardless of their organi­zation’s size or location. Innovation is not slowing down, and the changes that will affect our industry this year and in the years to come are unknown, which is why there needs to be an estab­lished system of collaboration between private and public sec­tors. Private and public organizations will lead the way with new technology and developments, making it critical that the public sector has the tools necessary to keep up and stay on pace. With greater collaboration, organizations can share best practices that can help everyone be successful.

Read the article here.

NATHAN BERRY is regional sales director at Passport. He can be reached at nathan.berry@ passportinc.com.


MOBILITY & TECH: Techno-centric Thinking

By Melissa Yates, CAPP

SIMPLY PUT, IN 2019 PARKING AND MOBILITY program leaders will need to become even more “techno-centric,” or educated, regarding options offered by industry vendors as they relate to technology and data. To satisfy customer demand for parking, mobility, and access options in any system, industry leaders will need to understand the variety of supporting technologies and data, how they function, and how to match them in a complementary way to effect programmatic success. If not, program leaders will run the risk of quickly becoming a legacy program with a failed service model.

Matching program offerings is often the first.  Taking a chance on a dynamic new vendor can be hurdle to overcome, with integration directly follow-extremely rewarding, not to mention temping, or a ing. As much as the newest technology sounds like huge risk for program managers. The carrot is most the answer to a multi-faceted problem of parking, obviously a variety of promised data that is ardently access, and data demand, the real question to ask sought after to help easily identify and make pro-is, “Will this company still be around in the near grammatic decisions from, such as dynamic price future?” Do they have a service track record in the setting to balance access needs during business industry, however brief, and are they willing to work peaks, as well as how to best use the limited curb-with other vendors to achieve a cohesive integration? side more effectively.

As quickly as technology and digital offerings are rushing forward to assist in program management, the customer must be able to easily use and understand the benefit. Staff must also be brought along with the vision and able to adapt even more quickly with their buy-in and ongoing support of the new digital business model.

Shifting to New Platforms
As the industry shifts from heavy investments in physical program infrastructure such as gates, signage, wayfinding, and pay stations to more digital and application-based platforms, it’s important to keep the vision of basic services germane to all parking programs running smoothly: efficient enforcement, infrastructure upkeep, and parking product sales. As the trusted ambassadors of access parking pro­grams, our core work is to ensure that other departments, services, and businesses can be successful through best practices in access and mobility management.

As quickly as technology and digital offerings are rushing forward to assist in program management, the customer must be able to easily use and understand the benefit. Staff must also be brought along with the vision and able to adapt even more quickly with their buy-in and ongoing support of the new digital business model. Some guiding questions are:

  • What data are truly desired?
  • Will the data identify who is using resources, when, and how often?
  • Does this technology meet these needs, along with the triple-benefit rule (customer satisfaction, staff efficiencies, and assistance with program leadership decision-making)?

There are a multitude of technology platform offerings in the industry today. Having a clear vision of the information sets desired to make data-driven decisions is important, while being supported by solid program basics of parking access and mobility is critical to success. Established vendors are already adapting to a more app-driven digital platform and have identified a subset of industry metrics most requested and shifted to meet the need. Mining their experience and track record is key. The essentials of how they have shown up in the past is a nice starting place before joining with them, linked arm in arm, into the digital future of new offerings.

A continued model of success, showing commitment to contributing to a strong digital program with ease of integra­tion, is important. Finally, before too many dollars are spent, find out who’s willing to play in the pilot sandbox, and if sam­pling the product has the vendor pulling up to the table, or looking for a different program to work with.

Read the article here.

MELISSA YATES, CAPP, is access and parking manager for the City of Boulder, Colo. She can be reached at yatesm@bouldercolorado.gov.


The Green Standard: I Was Going to Recycle, but …

By Yasser Jabbari

YOU ARE LATE FOR WORK. You are carrying the breakfast that you some­how did not spill on yourself navigating through morning traffic. As you speed-walk through the parking lot, you come to a set of trash and recy­cling cans that have words on the front of them that you never really have time to read. What you do notice is that the trash cans have swinging doors on them, which means one of the hands being used to eat your breakfast is going to have to touch that door before you can throw away some of the trash from your car. Instead of doing that, you leave the trash on top of the container and never think about it again.

What was just described might be happening right now in any number of parking lots around the world. How do we convince our customers to act re­sponsibly with the trash they bring into the parking lot? On the other end of it, are we giving customers the right oppor­tunities in the right places to complete a sustainable act? A lack of trash cans or the wrong type of cans will negate any conscious effort to do the right thing.

Offering the Right Stuff
Disneyland has trash receptacles ev­ery 30 feet in any direction. They have figured out that people are only willing to walk 30 feet to throw out trash. They also have only two receptacles at any location: one for trash and one for glass and plastic bottles. The user’s choice becomes very simple at this point.

If you come across five different trash receptacles, are you going to stop and look at every single one to figure out which gets your half-eaten bagel and which gets your coffee cup, or are you just going to throw it in the trash and make peace with the compromise that it did not end up on the ground? The small impediments we as operators put in front of our customers will make or break whether a person makes the right choice.

The example given above was actual feedback our department received from customers in our parking lots. When it came time to replace the garbage can lids, the new ones were selected be­cause they had open lids that made it easy to just drop the trash in—no touch­ing with one’s hands.

Along with accessibility and ease of use, sustainability needs to be driven with education, ideally before a customer even arrives at the parking facility. Operators can take advantage of the recycling and trash norms most people adhere to that dictate how to discard refuse in the right way. But do we know what happens to that trash after it leaves our facilities?
What was once recyclable is no longer recyclable, and a well-meaning customer in a parking lot who thinks he or she is doing the right thing may not actually be at all. We need to make sure that the customer has the proper information so he or she really does the right thing. This goes hand-in-hand with easily accessible facilities that make the proper choices possible.

Consider pizza boxes. A pizza box is made from cardboard; cardboard can be recycled, so that goes into the blue recy­cling container. In actuality, because of the grease in the pizza, that box actually can’t be recycled and is now a contam­inant in the recycling can. The same goes for paper cups or plates, which sometimes have plastic or petroleum lining to make them last longer. Contrary to first glance, these items are not re­cyclable and should be disposed of in a landfill bin.

In the end, the interaction between a customer and a trash can or recycling bin is very short and one-directional. To effect any kind of change, people must be educated before they ever come near a trash or recycling can so they can make the right choice.

While I applaud any organization that can effectively compost from a parking lot, most users of our facilities just want to be able to make a simple choice—the right choice—and move on with their day. Can we achieve that with a simple trash can and recycling bin and clear labeling? I believe that most people will use the receptacles as long as we don’t get in their way.

Read the article here.

YASSER JABBARI works in facilities for transportation and parking services at the University of California, Riverside, and is a member of IPMI’s Sustainability Committee. He can be reached at yasser.jabbari@ucr.edu.


Honoring an Urbanist

The work of Jane Jacobs and what it means to parking.

2018-12 Urbanist 1 2018-12 Urbanist 2

By L. Dennis Burns, CAPP

On a recent project trip to Boise, Idaho, I was invited to wait in the conference room of our client, the Capital City Develop­ment Corporation, or CCDC, until other meeting attendees arrived. I had been in this conference room in the past, but it was a little different this time.
The agency had renamed the conference room the Jane Jacobs Room to honor the noted urbanist and activist who offered a new vision for diverse and vibrant urban redevelopment that prioritized people over automobiles. A small card was on a table in the waiting room outside that listed 10 of Jacobs’ princi­ples the CCDC, Boise’s urban redevelopment agency, has embraced in its daily work:

1. Eyes on the street.
2. Social capital.
3. The generators of diversity.
4. Form still follows function.
5. Local economies.
6. Innovation.
7. Make many little plans.
8. Gradual money.
9. Cities as organized complexity.
10. Citizen science.

I have run across many urban planners during my career whose critical thinking, innovative ap­proaches, and practical applications changed the way I think about urban environments. This in­cludes such names as Jan Gehl (Life Between Build­ings), Daniel Hudson Burnham (Chicago architect and planner), Kevin Andrew Lynch (The Image of the City), and contemporary planners such as John Fregonese from Portland, Ore., with whom I had the pleasure of working on a project in Dallas, Texas.

A Little More About Jacobs
The card outside the conference room inspired me to learn more about Jane Jacobs. In her 1961 book, “The Death and Life of Great American Cities,” she critiqued 1950s urban planning policies, which she believed were responsible for the decline of many city neighborhoods in the U.S. Going against the mod­ernist planning dogma of the era, Jacobs proposed a newfound appreciation for organic urban vibrancy in the United States.
Jacobs argued that modernist urban planning neg­atively affected cities because it rejected the value of human beings living in a community characterized by layered complexity and seeming chaos. The modernist planners preferred to use deductive reasoning to devel­op principles by which to plan cities. Among these poli­cies, she considered urban renewal the most dangerous and prevalent of the era. These policies, she claimed, destroy communities and innovative economies by creating isolated, unnatural, urban spaces.

In their place Jacobs advocated for what she called “four generators of diversity” that create effective eco­nomic pools of use and emphasized the importance of place. Her four generators of diversity were:

  • Mixed primary uses, activating streets at different times of the day.
  • Short blocks, allowing high pedestrian permeability.
  • Buildings of various ages and states of repair.
  • Density.

She sought to better understand and develop con­cepts for the role of cities in the economy. She felt the importance of a sense of place and multi-dimensional diversity in urban policy and design allows us to see the multiplicity of economies and working cultures, in which regional, national, and global economies are embedded.

Parking and Mobility
In reviewing the 10 urban planning principles noted above, I was struck by how closely they resembled many of the planning principles I have adopted from multiple sources over the years:

  • Eyes on the Street: Pedestrian traffic throughout the day, and the watchful eyes that come with it, en­hance the safety of city streets. In my work with the Interna­tional Downtown Association, I got to know and appreciate business improvement dis­tricts and downtown devel­opment authorities that run downtown clean-and-safe pro­grams as a primary strategy for urban area revitalization. The eyes-on-the-street principle has become well accepted and has, in fact, become a central tenet of the policies endorsed by the philosophy of crime pre­vention through environmen­tal design (CPTED).
  • Social Capital: The idea that every day activities and interactions that occur in an area create a net­work of relationships between neighbors and gener­ate social capital is central to Jacobs’ philosophy. As I have seen the parking profession grow and mature, I see parking professionals becoming more actively engaged in their communities and in the process of building foundations of mutual trust, shared efforts, and resilience in times of trouble. Examples include parking professionals who serve on multiple com­munity boards or other civic institutions and offer programs such as food for fines (pay parking fines with food donations), forget the fines (pay parking fines with homeless center donations), etc. I think Jacobs would have endorsed activities and pro­grams such as these.
  • The Generators of Diversity: Four factors in city planning and design help make the city diverse, safe, social, convenient, and economically vibrant. These are mixed uses, aged buildings, small blocks, and population density. Certainly, modern parking garage design has embraced mixed-use facilities and enhanced architecture, and there are sever­al that have embraced historic preservation by integrating old building facades into new garage designs. Emerging trends such as automated and adaptive reuse garages are useful concepts for sup­porting denser urban environments in the future.
  • Form Still Follows Function: Fashions and tech­nologies come and go, but what always remains relevant are the countless ways that people use the city, how the city works as a whole, and whether our urban design and planning reflect and serve those functions. Adapting to changing environments and technologies is at the heart of modern parking management. Adopting new curb-lane management strategies to support ride hailing and other shared mobility innovations is a good example.
  • Local Economies: Economic growth, whether local, national, or global, relies on the ability of urban economies to provide amply and diversely for themselves, rather than relying on imports. A key focus of my work the past decade has involved advancing the concept of parking as a tool for com­munity and economic development. One compo­nent of this is leveraging parking infrastructure de­velopment to achieve a variety of other community benefits, such as green roofs, public art, integrated residential development, street-level retail, and community gathering places. Customer-friendly parking management is essential to supporting a diverse set of business enterprises, especially in dense urban environments.
  • Innovation and Creativity: The greater the diver­sity of existing work in a local economy, the more opportunities to add new work and recombine old work in new ways. Parking structures can reflect community personality as well as cultural and social diversity. One of my favorite examples of this is the city of Eugene, Ore.’s, Step into Poetry program, along with its colorful garage murals, art-wrapped multi-space meters, and other public art projects.
  • Make Many Little Plans: The diversity of a good neighborhood can only be achieved when we allow many different people to pursue their own little plans, individually and collectively. My first reaction to this principle was to contrast it with Daniel Burn­ham’s famous quote: “Make no little plans; they have no magic to stir men’s blood and probably them­selves will not be realized. Make big plans; aim high in hope and work.” After I let this contrast marinate a little, I realized that while these two statements seem to be at odds with each other, they are actually quite complementary. Both are needed to advance and sustain urban environments and their essential vitality and functionality.
  • Gradual Money: Both diverse little plans and new kinds of work require diverse little sources of mon­ey available on an ongoing basis. Unfortunately, both public and private sources often only provide money floods and money droughts instead. I have been impressed in recent years to see local park­ing programs stepping up to be funding sources or partners to support projects that benefit their communities’ larger strategic goals. Examples in­clude parking programs being financial supporters of downtown master plan projects or community bike-share programs.
  • Cities as Organized Complexity: Cities function like ecosystems. Everything is connected to every­thing else in intricate, particular ways that cannot be captured well by statistics or formulas. Only close observation and reasoning from the bottom up will do. My work in cities has always held a fascination with the marvelous and often unexpected ways that dense, multicultural environments express themselves in urban settings. The rich and creative cultural stew created by so many diverse groups and activities can truly be magical (and even a little grit­ty at times). This authenticity is powerful and pal­pable, especially when contrasted to newer lifestyle centers that try to emulate urban cities but often come off feeling staged or contrived.
  • Citizen Science: The people best equipped to un­derstand urban complexity are ordinary interested citizens. Without the assumptions that often come with professional training, everyday users of the city can learn more freely from what they see and experience firsthand. I have spent my fair share of time attending or presenting to city council meet­ings and other community forums. Reinforcing this principle, I have often been impressed with the insights brought by the engaged citizens who attend these meetings. Their insights are grounded in their firsthand knowledge and experience of their com­munities. Merging these local insights into larger planning concepts through engaged community outreach always improves community planning in my opinion.

In Summary
While many of these concepts have become bedrock planning principles, it is often the simplest ideas that have the biggest effects. I am happy that many, if not all, of these principles are being integrated in day-to-day parking management programs across the country!

Read the article here.

L. DENNIS BURNS, CAPP, is regional vice president and senior practice builder with Kimley-Horn. He can be reached at dennis.burns@kimley-horn.com.

Disruption! Mobility! What’s a Parking Professional to Expect?

By Trevyr Meade, LEED GA

18-09 Disruption Mobility IPMI’s Parking Research Committee convened experts and professionals and invited them to weigh in on what to expect in transportation, shared mobility, and effecting positive change.

WE HEAR A LOT ABOUT MOBILITY—the ability to get from place to place—especially in cities. But what do trends in transit, shared rides and vehicles, and alternate modes of transportation mean for parking organizations? IPI’s Parking Research Committee asked some of the industry’s top experts for their opinions.
During the next 10 years what will be the biggest driver of change in our transportation systems?

Gary Lawrence: I think there will be three major drivers of change in our mobility and access systems. First will be the deg­radation of existing infrastructure with insufficient funding to replace it while also embedding needed communications ar­chitecture. The second will be a shift from fossil to alternative fuels. And there will be increases in urban congestion in surface transportation system, requiring multidi­mensional thinking.
Chris Atkins: The biggest drivers will be the rise of the sharing economy, its effects on driving, as well as the rise of autonomous and electrically powered ve­hicles. Also, from a technology perspective, the continued rise of digital transforma­tion using data to design new models of citizen mobility.

Robert Ferrin: Mobility behavior enabled by innovation will be the biggest driver in our transportation system. Con­ventional norms on how we access place are rapidly changing, spurred by shared-­mobility providers and instant informa­tion at your fingertips. Owning a car is no longer a necessity in locations where good public transit is coupled with robust car- and bike-share, dynamic shuttle systems, and other shared-mobility providers. As mobility behavior continues to change, it is important we create forward-thinking policies and programs to encourage the efficient movement of people and goods to support the growth of our communities.

Diana Alarcon: For South Florida, it will be the development of a regional mass transportation system. Our current mode of transportation in South Florida is a car. The three regional counties are currently working with the local transit agency on developing a mass transportation system of moving folks through all three counties. As these transitions occur, it will be the local cities’ challenge of that first/last mile trav­el. That is using all modes: walkability, bi­cycle, ride-sharing, car, car-sharing, trolley, bus and modern street car. And the biggest challenge will be: How do we make it work with the limited right-of-way available and curb to manage the traffic flow?

Joachim Hauser: The biggest driver for change will be digitalization indeed. There is no other technology around the block that will have more influence. ­Decision-making by each driver and indi­vidual will be accomplished by city-wide fleet management and in-car traffic man­agement, observing singular movements of cars, and managing traffic in a wider city-appropriate manner.

What should parking and transportation professionals know about shared mobility? What effects will shared mobility have on parking?

David Stein: The effects of shared mo­bility are real, but at the same time, there is still a great unknown in what the end results will be regarding parking. Adoption rates, investment in new technologies, and varying approaches to these emerging concepts mean there is no one-size-fits-all model and each municipality, region, or country will have already experienced different impacts to date. However, I think there is some consensus that as shared mobility begins to rise, the demand for parking will decrease and the way we think about parking will change. Accordingly, we should be proactive and resolute in our ap­proaches and response to the emerging and evolving system.

Robert Ferrin: In our urban cen­ters, shared-mobility providers are offering a new way to get from point A to point B that does not include taking traditional transportation options such as public transit or a single-occupancy vehicle. These pro­viders are having profound effects on our industry. For off-street providers, shared mobility is, in some cases, driving down parking demand and forcing operators to think differently about how they allocate spaces and permits to users. For on-street pro­viders and regulators, shared-mobili­ty providers are changing the way we allocate curb lane space beyond the traditional uses such as taxis, limos, and metered parking spaces. Flexible use of curb lane space is important to maximize limited parking and loading areas.

Joachim Hauser: We know from scientific studies that each car-­sharing car is able to substitute for up to seven individual cars. This figure might not be scalable to the entire car park, but there is a clear option to reduce the number of cars in a city. Most of these eliminated cars might have their parking at roadside, and they are seldom used. So this might not affect off-street parking at all. Furthermore, cities might use the chance to reduce on-street parking capacities to the advantage of park­ing operators. Also, mobility as such does not seem to be close to its saturation yet, which means more options for rides probably will lead to more rides but not to more cars. New opportunities are given by usage of strategically inter­esting parking locations as mobility hubs.

What current trends are you seeing related to mobility that are disrupting traditional transportation trends?

David Stein: The growth in the ride-hail industry is probably the most prevalent and identifiable trend that’s disrupting tradi­tional transportation throughout the world. First and foremost, the concept and functionality of a taxi has been transformed, and in many places, the ride-hail industry has outpaced and outnum­bers the traditional taxi market. It has also changed the way we think about moving from space to space and mobility in general. While car-share has changed our perception of mobility and is viewed as a mechanism to reduce car ownership and use, the pure func­tionality, cost, and convenience offered by ride-hail vehicles is changing the transportation landscape. For example, a recent article in Crain’s New York Business cites the rise of Uber and Lyft as both a major contributor to conges­tion while at the same time, discour­aging people from driving into the city. Operationally, parking operators are seeing less volume and demand in their facilities, creating what the author calls a “one-two punch” to our transportation system and skewing transportation trends like ­never before.

Diana Alacorn: Ride-sharing is a game changer in how people move in two ways: It allows someone the flexibil­ity of moving without the responsibility of a car, but at the same time, the num­ber of ride-share vehicles on the road­way is creating more traffic congestion. In time, the market will work through the number of ride-share vehicles that are on the road, but the demand for parking spaces will decrease as less peo­ple bring their own cars. Ultimately it may be a wash because reduced parking demand will open up curb space, which can accommodate ride-share queuing to reduce the traffic congestion on city surface streets.

Gary Lawrence: Declines in the quality of infrastructure—roads, rail, bridges—and associated infrastructure such as parking structures are compounding in­creases in vehicle trips and associated congestion. In addition, online shopping is putting more delivery vehicles on the streets, particularly in dense urban centers. Demand increases coupled with a reduced delivery speed and reduced reliability are causing frustration in many communities.

How do you see the design of parking structures evolving in response to these changes?

Robert Ferrin: Parking garages will need to adapt to new trans­portation innovations and be more than buildings that house vehicles. Older garages will need to be retrofitted to accommodate connected vehicles or lose their competitive advantage to newer facilities. Revenue-control equipment will need to be flexible to allow for in-vehicle payment and access and share real-time parking availability in an efficient manner. New garages should be designed to accommodate non-parking uses such as housing or office space, as the latest urban infill projects in Columbus, Ohio, are being designed.

Chris Atkins: Large-scale deployment of the internet of things (IOT) and communications infrastructure will generate lots of data. The data will be used to design mobility solutions, including parking, to take advantage of the ability to sense, moni­tor, and respond in real time. New pricing techniques and unified payment systems will also be designed using this data.

David Stein: With parking operators experiencing less de­mand, cities are seeing a golden opportunity for redevelopment through the adaptive reuse and/or redevelopment of their park­ing assets, both surface and garages. With many cities seeing their assets reaching the end of their useful life and limited op­portunities for growth, as well as people moving back into cities from the suburbs, there is little point to continued investment in such properties. Cities across the U.S. are seeing these prop­erties transformed into mixed-use development, rich in transit accessibility, and reinvigorating what were once desolate blocks.

How can the parking industry partner with mobility providers and managers to positively effect change?

Diana Alacorn: Parking operators from all branches of the busi­ness need to look and recreate the experience for the first and last mile. We work to meet federal, state, and local laws, but we forget to provide the patron an amazing experience. What is that experience? How can we all make it better? What is the customer service that you want to deliver and have your customer experi­ence? What do we need to do to make that experience the best! Working on the first and last mile will be the most important linkage between the parking and mobility industries.

Chris Atkins: Embrace the sharing economy, develop part­nerships to enhance the “smartness” of your infrastructure, and view yourself as a critical part of citizen mobility.
Gary Lawrence: I think the parking industry will need to move from being peripheral to mobility problem-solving to a more centralized role bringing together all modes and potential uses for storage and distribution.

Robert Ferrin: Municipal parking leaders should be creat­ing forward-thinking regulations to celebrate and grow these new mobility options for our customers. Setting the stage in the public realm for these transportation options to prosper will lead to additional mobility opportunities for all citizens in our com­munities. Taking chances with pilot or demonstration projects can test a concept and lead to increased acceptance of mobility options, such as car-share, ride-share, dynamic shuttle systems, and bike-sharing systems.

The effects of shared mobility are real but at the same time, there is still a great unknown in what the end results will be regarding parking.

Read the article here.

TREVYR MEADE, LEED GA, is certification program lead with the U.S. Green Building Council and a member of IPI’s Parking Research Committee. He can be reached at tmeade@gbci.org.


Our Experts

DIANE ALARCON is transportation and mobility department director for the City of Fort Lauderdale, Fla.

CHRIS ATKINS is vice president for digital government transformation at SAP Public Sector.

ROBERT FERRIN is assistant director for parking services with the City of Columbus (Ohio) Department of Public Service.

JOACHIM HAUSER is head of project, automated driving on business ground, with the BMW Group.

GARY LAWRENCE is chief planning and resilience strategist/principal with Enviro Dynamix.

DAVID STEIN is director, parking planning and policy, with the New York City Department of Transportation.