Tag Archives: weather

On the Go

On the Go

Mobile payments gain momentum in the parking industry. 

The parking industry has greatly evolved in recent years with the introduction of new and On the Go Article about mobile payments in parking, gaining momentum. better technologies. Even well into the 1990s, some parking garages used cigar boxes to accept payments—consumers simply dropped cash into the box and parked their vehicles.

But today paints a different picture with countless options available to consumers looking for a convenient way to find and pay for a parking spot. In a world of on-demand services through the use of apps, drivers can quickly find a parking spot and pre-pay to reserve it with the click of a button. Some mobile apps allow consumers to pay for a parking meter and refill the meter remotely, without ever needing to revisit the physical space where a car is parked. Indeed, today’s consumer has come to expect convenience and efficiency in every aspect of his or her life, including how and where he or she parks a vehicle.

The Opportunity
Mobile technology is a significant driver of this shift and increasingly popular among parking providers. However, consumers have been slow to adopt mobile payments. In North America, 52 percent are extremely aware of mobile payments, but only 18 percent are using them on a regular basis, according to a recent Accenture survey.

As the U.S. transitions to a Europay-Mastercard-Visa (EMV) system and more retailers begin to accept chip card and near-field communications (NFC) transactions, it’s anticipated that consumers will be more motivated to adopt mobile payments. In fact, research shows that by 2017, mobile payment users are projected to reach 50.2 million, up from 37.5 million in 2016. In time, mobile will come to be expected across industries for the speed, convenience, and security it offers consumers.

An added layer of security that operators can implement is end-to-end encryption, ensuring that clear text account data are never released into the merchant’s environment. For example, the Visa Digital Enablement program provides Visa issuers with streamlined access to its token service and to future wallet providers of the issuer’s choice without the need to directly contract with them. This will work to minimize the risk of fraudulent use of accounts if the device or account is compromised.

In Canada, 75 percent of major retailers accept contactless payments compared to fewer than 2 percent in the U.S. This is in large part because Canada rolled out chip cards and contactless payments concurrently, allowing consumers to adopt the technologies much more quickly. The mass adoption of mobile north of the border is indicative of the tremendous growth the U.S. can anticipate to experience when more merchants implement EMV and NFC-capable terminals.

Why Mobile Matters
Currently, there are a variety of mobile payments options coming to market at once—Apple Pay, Samsung Pay, Google Wallet—and while it’s unclear which industry player will come out on top, it’s a matter of time before mobile payments become second nature. There are several benefits to consider when contemplating launching mobile payments in markets that haven’t yet:

Increased convenience. Many garages require a customer to pay at a separate terminal located in a vestibule to get a ticket confirming payment. From there, the customer can return to his or her vehicle and exit the garage using the ticket to open the gate. With the ability to accept credit cards and mobile payments right at the point of exit, customers are able to remove an extra step and immediately pay at the gate, drive, and go. With the tap of a smartphone and no signature required, mobile provides a convenient and efficient way to pay. This is a strategic advantage for operators in a sector in which customer turnaround is high, time is at a premium, and lines can build quickly. While the time and cost it takes to implement mobile contactless technologies is significant, those who make the switch to mobile will be ahead of the curve.

Build customer loyalty. Starbucks is a perfect example of a company that is leveraging mobile to expand its customer base and increase foot traffic in its stores. With the wave of a smartphone, customers are able to quickly pay for their latte at the checkout counter. The mobile app also allows users to order ahead of time, reducing wait times and lines. Further, customers continue using the app because they have the opportunity to earn incentives, such as discounts or free coffees. The app has been such an effective sales tool that in its first fiscal quarter of 2015, the company said it had more than 13 million mobile users in the U.S., up from 12 million reported in October. Parking operators have a similar opportunity and can use apps to build a loyal following of customers.

Boost your bottom line. As more consumers adjust to using an NFC-enabled mobile device, it will begin to be the preferred method of payment due to its many advantages. But what about advantages to the parking operator? More frequent use creates a top-of-wallet card for everyday purchases, and according to a MasterCard study, researchers found a clear correlation between contactless adoption and preference for a particular card, demonstrating that a contactless payments solution may help drive top-of-wallet behavior. Research also shows that consumers spend more using contactless cards, which could ultimately increase revenues.

Make every transaction more secure. Together, tokenization and mobile wallets offer consumers added protection from exposed sensitive card data. Point-to-point contactless applications remove parking operators from PCI/PA-DSS scope and help to reduce the risk of a breach or fraudulent charge.

Attract tourists. With global interoperability, NFC-­enabled mobile devices can benefit frequent travelers, who can use familiar capabilities in a foreign city. This too will help to drive a higher spend and generate more sales.

Mobile payments may still be slow to catch on in the U.S., but the recent EMV liability shift is sure to transform the way consumers pay across industries. If parking operators want to be able to stay ahead of competition and demonstrate to customers that they’re adapting to the latest technologies, mobile payment solutions are an option to consider.

MICHAEL HUGHES is manager, North American strategic partner sales at Moneris Solutions. He can be reached at michael.hughes@moneris.com

TPP-2016-09-On The Go

Battening Down

Battening Down

One way to deal with the unpredictable costs of winter weather.  

Believe it or not, snow and ice are right around the corner. The volatility of the past several Battening Downwinters, from mild temperatures to record snowfall, has complicated the already difficult task of budgeting during the winter months. This can directly affect the bottom line of both leased and owned parking facilities by keeping lots empty and increasing snow removal costs. For managed properties, it can stress margins and damage client relationships.

The uncertainty of weather ensures that the only thing definite about snow-related costs is that they will be unpredictable. You can analyze forecasts (what does El Niño mean?), read the Farmers, Almanac, use last year’s expenditures as a placeholder, or just throw a dart at a board. A fixed, seasonal rate may help, but you still have risk in both high and low snow years. During seasons with below-average snowfall, you are paying for a service that isn’t being provided. In high-snow seasons, some vendors might skimp on service to manage their own margins. These costs are independent of the weather’s effect on customer behavior, which negatively affects revenue.

Tools exist that can mitigate this seasonal risk. Coupled with using vendor management and RFP best practices, these financial instruments can effectively cap a variable expense. This allows both tenants and parking service providers to better manage their costs, revenue, and capital structure. These financial tools utilize weather options or derivatives. Hedging your snow removal costs will allow you to cap your snow removal expenses without sacrificing service.

How It Works
Weather options act in a similar way to insurance but differ in two key aspects:

  • Unlike the long process of collecting on an insurance claim, you will receive payment 30 days from the end of the winter season.
  • The payout is not determined by the costs you incur at your specific location. Instead, you are paid based on the amount of snow at an agreed-upon location. This eliminates the need for a long claims process and minimizes the administrative burden.

These products have been around for decades and have been widely adopted by the energy and agriculture sectors. Oil and gas companies can protect themselves against the negative effects of a warm winter, and utilities can save themselves from a decrease in electricity usage in cool summers. Agriculture can protect itself from instances of extreme temperature or precipitation.

Following is an overview of the weather derivatives market, a basic explanation of the product’s mechanics, and some ways it may benefit the parking industry.

History of Weather Derivatives
The weather market is rooted in the energy industry and began around the same time as deregulation in the U.S. Energy providers always knew that variability in the weather was probably the largest factor affecting energy consumption. However, these companies were able to absorb the ups and downs of the market because they were operating as monopolies. This provided great financial stability for the energy companies with minimal financial risk. At the time of deregulation, the various entities in the process of producing, marketing, and delivering energy to U.S. households and businesses were forced to confront weather as a significant risk to their bottom line.

The first participants in the market—energy traders such as Koch Industries and Aquila—created and executed the first weather derivative transactions in 1997. The first deals were all structured as protection against warmer- or cooler-than-average weather in specific regions for the winter or summer seasons. The early market participants saw weather derivatives as an opportunity to hedge inherent weather exposure in their core assets and a new risk management product to offer to regional utilities.

The weather derivatives market has since expanded to the agriculture market and beyond. Bill Windle, managing director of Munich Re and long-time participant in the weather options market, has experienced this growth firsthand. He observes, “The weather derivatives industry has grown considerably in recent years. When I first started, we spent most of our time and effort helping those in the energy and agriculture industries mitigate the impact that weather had on their businesses. In recent years, we’ve helped everyone from real estate to municipalities manage their weather risk. I like to think that we are helping people take some of the worry out of their budgets.”

Anatomy of a Weather Derivative
Weather derivatives exist primarily in the private or over-the-counter market. This just means the trades are not conducted on exchanges such as the New York Stock Exchange or the Chicago Mercantile Exchange. While the transactions are not completed on exchanges, they are still regulated by the National Futures Association and the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority. The transactions are executed with one-to-one agreements with the underwriter, or person taking the opposite position on the trade.

In the weather derivatives market, these underwriters are large, highly regulated, international insurance and reinsurance companies, such as Munich Re, Swiss Re, and Nephila Capital.

There are two primary references that need to be identified before using a weather option to manage your snow removal costs: quantifying the impact of an inch of snow for your location and identifying when you want the option to start paying you. Once that has been completed, determining the other components of the transaction (weather station, index, term, strike, payout, and premium) is relatively straightforward. Table 1 defines the factors required to enter a hedging agreement.

After the agreement is entered, the premium is paid to the underwriter. At the end of the agreed-upon term (in this example: March 31), if the snowfall for the identified weather station is above the strike amount, the option is considered “in the money.” This means that you will receive the payout that corresponds to the incremental amount identified in your contract. Using the sample contract from Table 1, the payout would be $200,000 in the event that it snowed 40 inches at Baltimore/Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport. (40 inches-20 inches = 20 inches; 20 inches x $10,000 = $200,000).

We will now walk through a step-by-step graphical illustration of the effect hedging against snowfall can have on your budget. For simplicity, we will address snow removal costs only, not lost revenue.

Snow removal expenses increase with snowfall and are highly variable on a year-to-year basis. The red line in Figure 1 represents the increase in snow removal costs as the seasonal snowfall rises. These expenses are usually recognized at the property level and can severely damage annual budgets.

To offset snow removal expenses in years with high snowfall, a call option is purchased. The blue line in Figure 2 represents the payout of the option as the snowfall total for the season increases. In this example, the option has a strike at the average snow amount and pays a pre-determined and increasing amount for every inch over that strike.
In Figure 3 the hedge payout and the increasing expenses are layered together. You can see that the cost of the hedge, or premium, creates a slight increase in expenses in low snow years. However, the payout offsets the above-average expenses when the option is in the money.

Figure 4 illustrates the resulting budget predictability as a result of the hedge. Expenses are capped at a predictable value that is slightly above the historical annual average. This cap still allows for positive budget variances in low-snow years, allowing you to come in under budget while de-risking your parking portfolio.

Case Study
Now that we have gone through the anatomy of a weather hedge, let’s look at an actual example of weather options being used to manage snow removal expenses. This location is a class A office building located in Elgin, Ill. The average seasonal snowfall for the location is 40 inches, with an average snow removal expense of roughly $80,000. The property manager, with the help of an adviser, chose a hedge that paid out $2,500 per inch for every inch above 40 inches. The premium for this transaction was roughly $18,000.

As you can see in Figure 5, the snow removal expenses in the average year are increased by the amount of the option premium. It is also worth noting that the net expense (the costs of snowplowing, plus the cost of the hedge, minus the option payout) ended up actually being less in the historically high, 80-inch, snow season.

Possible Effects
Outside of budget certainty and cost savings, there are a number of additional benefits that can come from removing the volatility of weather. Many parking service providers choose to pass winter maintenance costs directly through to their clients. As clients continue to look toward bundled services, synthetically fixing snow removal costs may allow managers to add services to their scope of work without risking margins.
Additionally, any opportunity to help clients (owners, municipalities, investors) save money might lead to longer contract terms and stickier relationships. It can also allow vendors to remain profitable and provide quality service rather than losing money in high-snow years.

Lastly, we must think about how weather affects revenue, not just expenses. The examples used here have been largely applicable to parking lots. However, numerous locations have had their revenue affected by the rough winter of 2014-15 or the East Coast blizzard of 2016. Even if you are operating garage locations, you were likely affected if you operate around a leisure or tourist location.

As with all financial instruments, you must always ensure that you understand all the risks and benefits related to weather options. This overview hopes to provide those in the parking sector with information that may be useful in analyzing their weather-related financial risks and understand that there are products out there designed to mitigate those risks.

The information herein should not be construed or interpreted as recommending any investment in any particular product, instrument, or security and should not be relied on as the sole source of information upon which to base an investment decision. We recommend that you always do your homework to understand the needs and health of your business before deciding what financial programs are best for you.

As we look toward the 2016-17 winter, there might be a few tools out there that can help make the process a little less uncertain and a lot more bearable.

SHANE BELVIN is managing director of Nobel Weather Associates. He can be reached at shane@nobelweather.com

TPP-2016-09-Battening Down

Weathering the Storm

Weathering the Storm

Simply put, life on Earth exists because of the presence of water. However, water is also a force of nature that can have incredible destructive capabilities. For that reason alone, it’s important for us as parking managers to understand how our operations affect our water resources, actively take steps to protect water quality and availability, and work to mitigate the damage water can inflict. That means paying attention to stormwater management.

Natural Ecosystems
In natural ecosystems, rain falls onto woodlands, wetlands, grasslands, or forests and percolates through soil and plant material to charge underwater aquifers or flow into streams and rivers. By percolating through the natural, organic materials, water is slowly absorbed and purified.

Through this process, the water’s speed and flow is tempered, and it is gradually reabsorbed into the earth. The soil itself holds the water, which reduces flooding and erosion. The amount of water that soaks into the soil is determined by the amount of organic material.

Urban Environments
In urban settings, the process that happens in natural ecosystems is interrupted. Permeable soil is covered by impermeable concrete and asphalt. Rain that falls on these hard surfaces quickly runs off the surface, carrying with it any oils or pollutants to streams and rivers. Depending on the chemical, pollutants can have deadly short- and long-term consequences for the natural environment and humans.

Because stormwater runoff moves quickly and with some force, it causes extensive erosion. Artificially channeling water increases erosion because it increases both the speed and volume of runoff. Erosion itself is a problem as it destroys natural habitats in streams and rivers.

There are other costs as well. Erosion can undermine the structural integrity of roads, parking lots, and buildings. For the parking industry, water can have large economic effects on an organization as the water can very quickly wash away the adhesive and waterproofing properties of asphalt and get into the pavement structure, allowing it to dry out, crack, and ravel. Erosion not only increases the amount of sediments carried by stormwater runoff, but sediment running off asphalt surfaces also has large amounts of petroleum products, corrosive chemicals, and fine metals. This affects plants and animals living in our streams and rivers.

Sediment also affects the surrounding water ecosystem in several ways by absorbing heat, blocking sunlight, and polluting the water. Sediments absorb heat, so a sediment-laden river will have a higher temperature than a clear river. Warmer waters hold less oxygen, which means fewer animals are able to survive.

Sediments in the water column block sunlight. Less light means less photosynthesis by algae and aquatic plants living on the streambed. This not only reduces the amount of oxygen in the water column, but also reduces the amount of food available to support the herbivores at the base of the food chain. This, in turn, means less food is available to their predators, such as fish, birds, and mammals.

Sediments sink to the floor of streams and rivers. This eliminates homes for aquatic invertebrates, an important food source for predatory fish. The sediments also smother algae and smaller aquatic plants.

Protecting the Water Supply
As discussed, impermeable concrete and asphalt alter the natural flow and quality of water in urban environments. Fortunately, there are steps that we in the parking industry can take to protect our water supply and our parking assets.

To begin with, we can address water quality issues by simply keeping our parking lots clean and asphalt assets well-maintained. Regularly sweeping our parking lots to remove trash and debris improves the quality of any stormwater running off the pavement. Promptly treating and cleaning fluids, such as oils and coolants, that leak from vehicles also reduces water pollution.

Parking lots and roads that are well-maintained at regular intervals can last for many years; maintenance offers significant cost savings as it is more cost efficient to maintain the asphalt than it is to build and rebuild. With a strong, durable surface, water will naturally flow off the surface as designed. However, damage to an asphalt surface will allow water to seep through, deteriorate the sub-structure, and compromise its ability to sustain the pressure of traffic loads. When the foundation beneath the asphalt is damaged, the surface is more susceptible to potholes, alligator cracking, and further water erosion.

In parking lot and roadway designs, we can funnel polluted stormwater into sewer systems so runoff is treated by the municipal water treatment plant. While this may be a convenient solution, it may not always be the most feasible one, especially if there is a large body of water such as a river or lake nearby. In several coastal states where sewers drain directly into the ocean, there are significant rules and regulations regarding stormwater management that mandate onsite mitigation and treatment of runoff.

Several landscaping and surface treatments can be used to reduce stormwater runoff, including incorporating the use of bioswales and permeable surfaces. Bioswales, such as rain gardens, are landscaping treatments used to slow, collect, infiltrate, filter, and store stormwater until it is reabsorbed into the ground. These drainage areas are often filled with native, water-loving plants that can tolerate being under water for short periods of time, but they can also simply be filled with rock.

In flatter areas, permeable surfaces, such as areas covered with pavers or permeable concrete, can be a good solution for stormwater. They allow water to penetrate below the surface and percolate through the soil below to recharge natural aquifers. However, permeable surfaces are susceptible to erosion as the speed of the water flow still plays a big role in runoff. Depending upon your water flow needs or landscaping plan design, you can slow down water and erosion damage by having it crash into larger rocks that are in the drainage channel where the water flows. The water expends some of its energy on the rocks instead of the surface treatment in the channel. If you slow down the water, it has less force, and with less force, there is less erosion and sediment.

While organizations can invest in alternative transportation programs and advances in technology that reduce parking demand, asphalt facilities to accommodate vehicle parking and travel will always exist. However, the need to address the political, environmental, and economic conditions created by stormwater will also continue to exist as the natural progression of the planet’s weather patterns continue. As parking operators, land developers, and planners, it is our obligation to ensure that we are aware of all of the options that exist to be able to understand what is at stake and appropriately allocate our limited resources and make the hard decisions for the future.

Irma Henderson, CAPP, is director of transportation services at the University of California Riverside. She can be reached at irma.henderson@ucr.edu.

Jennifer Tougas, CAPP, PhD, is director of parking and transportation services at Western Kentucky University. She can be reached at jennifer.tougas@wku.edu.