Tag Archives: municipal parking

IPMI Webinar: Potential Impacts of City-Level Parking Cash-Out and Transit Benefit Ordinances


Regular Pricing: $35.00 for IPMI Members, $50.00 for Non-Members

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The vast majority of employers provide their employees free parking at work, which encourages employees to drive alone. Parking cash-out enables employees to choose cash instead of free, employer-provided parking, substantially reducing the rate at which people drive alone to work. But this has not been implemented broadly. This presentation will provide an overview of cash-out policies; highlight the results of a Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) analysis of six different possible cash-out ordinances, for nine different cities, to estimate their potential impacts; and offer information on the real-world implementation of cash-out policies at the municipal level. A literature review of the impacts of parking pricing and commuter incentives will be shared as part of the presentation.

  • Objectives:
    Inform the audience of the expected benefits of commute pricing incentives to improve parking management, including better utilization of existing parking supply and reduced vehicle-miles traveled in turn leading to less congestion and reductions in air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions and other related externalities.
  • Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of different city-level parking pricing and incentive policies in terms of both implementation challenges and policy impacts.
  • Explore the robust and creative analytical, techniques used to evaluate policy alternatives and how they can take advantage of the work performed in the FHWA project to help with their own analysis.


Allen Greenberg, U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, has analyzed and advocated for sustainable U.S transportation policy from both inside and outside of government for 25 years. As a senior policy analyst at the Federal Highway Administration, Mr. Greenberg cultivates, develops, and manages transportation pricing pilot initiatives, including many parking pricing projects. Earlier, Mr. Greenberg worked at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and League of American Bicyclists. He holds a Master in Urban and Regional Planning from the University of Virginia and a B.S. in Public Policy and Management from Carnegie Mellon University.




Colleen Stoll, City of Santa Monica, Calif., is the Transportation Demand Management Program Manager for the City of Santa Monica. The TDM program proactively manages congestion, improves air quality, and reduces automobile dependence in Santa Monica. It requires annual trip reduction plans from developers and employers with 10 or more employees. When Santa Monica started the TDM Program over twenty years ago, the number of solo drivers driving to work was 80 percent. Today, that number has been reduced to 62 percent in the mornings, and 58 percent in the afternoons. Last year, that translated to over 12,300 fewer car trips per day.

THE BUSINESS OF PARKING | LEGAL: Don’t Be Arbitrary and Capricious

By Michael J. Ash, Esq., CRE

HENRY “HANK” ROWAN JR.’S induction furnace design is used throughout the world to melt metal, but he is best known for his philanthropy. In 1991, Hank and Betty Rowan donated $100 million to Glassboro State College, which became Rowan University. Rowan University began an almost 30-year program of development that resulted in new education programs, departments, and facilities. The physical campus and student body have expanded tremendously, and its hometown of Glassboro, N.J., has also been transformed.

One of the typical controversies in a college town is the balance between student and resident parking. In Glass­boro, this recently reached the New Jersey appellate courts in the matter Glassboro Guardians v. Borough of Glassboro, Docket No. A-1670-16 (April 18, 2018).
In an attempt to control the use of on-street parking and restore a balance between student and resident on-street parking, the Glassboro Town Council adopted an ordinance requiring all rental properties within the municipality to “provide a minimum of one off-street parking space for every one authorized occupant 18 years of age or more.” This new parking regulation was challenged in court by the Glassboro Guardians, a nonprofit corporation comprised of indi­viduals who own rental properties within the municipality and presumably rent to students for off-campus housing.

The Guardians claimed the ordinance:

  • Was arbitrary and capricious.
  • Was improperly enacted under the municipality’s police power.
  • Violated the equal protection clause of the New Jersey Constitution and New Jersey Civil Rights Act.

After a three-day trial the judge struck down the ordinance.

Regulating Parking

While there is little doubt that on-street parking can be regulated throughout a municipality with the establishment of parking meters, signage, and a program of penalty enforcement, typical police powers must be implemented in such a way as to conform with the law. Some of the first residential permit parking programs were subjected to legal challenges alleging discrimination against non-residents and an improp­er allocation of the public resource of on-street parking. The U.S. Supreme Court, in upholding the legality of a residential parking permit program, can be interpreted to support addi­tional aspects of on- and off-street parking regulation.

In previous cases, the Supreme Court clearly identified the rational objectives of a residential permit parking program, including en­hancement of the quality of life for residents of a community, properly regulating the utilization and balance between off-street parking facilities and on-street parking resources, and promoting the flow of traffic by limiting the circling of non-residents searching for free on-street parking.

Judging Municipal Actions

In New Jersey and most states through­out the country, municipal actions are presumed to be valid, and an objector has a heavy burden in seeking to over­turn them. A challenger must clearly show that the municipal action is “arbi­trary, capricious, or unreasonable” be­cause the underlying policy and wisdom of an ordinance is assumed to reside with the governing body, not the courts, which are not as familiar with the issues in dispute. An ordinance will not be set aside if any set of reasonable facts jus­tifies it. Although a court will typically not investigate the motives behind an ordinance, the court will weigh evidence about the legislative purpose when the reasonableness of the enactment is not apparent on its face.

Here, it seems that the Glassboro Council sought to maintain the balance between student and resident parking through the adoption of the ordinance. However, the court observed the lack of any introductory language or statement of reasons justifying why it was enacted. Without any explanation included in the rule itself, the judge examined the legislative history but found no explanation for adoption of the ordinance. Glassboro failed to articulate any valid reason for the parking policy, and it was set aside after years of litigation.

Tips For Adopting Parking Regulations

  • Include detailed recitals or “whereas” provisions setting forth the factual basis for the parking regulation.
  • Accumulate and reference documents that support the reason for the parking regulation in the form of parking studies, correspondence, or internal analysis.
  • Make a record at the adoption of the policy through comment and discussion.

When considering the implementation of new parking regulations, the parking professional should be able to identify the rational basis for the policy. In addition to the desired regulatory changes, the legislation, whether by ordi­nance or resolution, should clearly articulate the objectives of the regulation.

Read the article here.

MICHAEL J. ASH, Esq., CRE, is a partner with Decotiis, Fitzpatrick, & Cole, LLP. He can be reached at mash@decotiislaw.com.

IPMI On-Demand Webinar: Being a Superhero in Your City


Regular Pricing: $35.00 for IPMI Members, $50.00 for Non-Members

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Description: Whether it’s Superman, Spiderman, or Wonder Woman, everyone loves a superhero. Hear how you can raise the bar in your city or operations by improving your parking organization. Operate in a way that an administration looks for ways to keep you and not reasons to keep you; you have the (super)power to promote your parking product!


  • Best practices to improve operations in a municipality, with a focus on working with contractors.
  • Key Performance Indicators (KPI’s) and how to use them to determine improvements or adjustments to operations.
  • Ways to improve operations, staff morale, corporate and citizen relations, and your organization as a whole.


Tiffany Smith serves as Director of the Parking Authority of River City, Inc. (PARC) in Louisville, KY. Tiffany’s focus is on emphasizing technology, innovation and creative thinking in their parking operations.  While providing oversight for internal and contracted staff, she prides herself in ensuring superior customer service and changing the overall perception of parking and its value in a city as an economic engine, contributing over $100M to their growing city.






Thomas Leathers, CAPP, serves as Parking Administrator for the City of Durham, N.C. Thomas has over 25 years of parking management, transit and economic development experience. He managed economic development projects for the City of Durham; parking and transit operations at American University and served as the Deputy General Manager of MetroAccess by Murray’s Transportation. As the Parking Division Administrator, he provides senior leadership, expertise, and management for parking operations, services, facilities, and programs.

Campus Expansion Demands Parking Innovation

By Bill Smith and Craig Smith

WHEN IPMI VISITS SAN ANTONIO, TEXAS, NEXT JUNE, Conference & Expo attendees will Campus Parking Texashave a chance to see an innovative parking project. H-E-B, the Texas-based grocery retailer, is close to completing the development of a new five-level parking garage that will provide 744 spaces to employees and visitors to the company’s historic Arsenal Campus. This parking project apart is set apart because the new garage is located across the busy, four-lane Cesar Chavez Boulevard from the campus and features a skybridge pedestrians can use to safely move to and from the parking garage.

The project is part of a larger expansion of H-E-B’s headquarters campus, which has created the need for more parking. The parking garage and bridge project is part of a $100 million master plan, under which the company plans to add 1,600 employ­ees to its downtown headquarters by 2030.

As might be expected, it was challenging to find the necessary space to develop parking in this bustling area, but the development team came up with a solu­tion that permitted H-E-B to build the new parking fa­cility within the corporate campus. The addition of the skybridge ensured that the new development provides safe and convenient parking for employees and visitors without affecting traffic on the busy street.

“Success often leads to a need for more parking,” says Casey Wagner, executive vice president and man­aging director of the Houston office of Walker Consul­tants, the parking consultant on the project. “Meeting that additional need often requires creativity, and this project stands out in that regard. The entire team, starting with the owner, showed a truly creative spirit.”

Meeting Increased Parking Need
In a sense, developing necessary parking was the sim­ple part of the project. There was an existing parking lot on which the new structure could be built, which served as the project footprint.

The garage was designed to architecturally comple­ment H-E-B’s historic head­quarters building, which has played an important role in San Antonio’s history. The building was originally es­tablished as an arsenal and is still known as The Arse­nal. It was established as the predecessor to Fort Sam Houston and supplied ammunition and provisions to troops in four armed conflicts, beginning with the Civil War.

Given the historic importance of H-E-B’s headquar­ters building, it was imperative that the new garage complement it architecturally while fitting seamlessly into the neighborhood. To achieve this, the garage was constructed with a mix of materials that included steel, concrete, metal screening, metal fencing, D’Hanis brick, and other masonry elements. The completed ga­rage beautifully achieves its architectural goals while providing a safe and convenient parking experience.

The five-level deck boasts a number of amenities designed to improve the parking experience, including rows of rooftop-shading trellis aligned above the park­ing spaces to provide shade and reduce the garage’s carbon footprint. LED lighting is used throughout the garage to enhance visibility and improve safety while reducing operational costs through enhanced effi­ciency. Extensive landscaping improves the project’s aesthetics while further reducing the garage’s carbon footprint. Finally, wire fencing is used to establish the borders of the parking complex.

“Improving the parking experience is a vitally important consideration when you design a parking facility on a corporate campus,” Wagner says. “If employees can park their vehicles quickly and conve­niently, they can get to their workstations or to meet­ings more efficiently and in a better frame of mind. The work day is much more pleasant for employees when it gets off to a good start in the parking facility, and those employees are typically more productive and effective at work. The Arsenal Building garage accomplishes all of these goals.”

Reaching for the Sky
What really stands out about the new garage is a pedes­trian skybridge that allows pedestrians to safely walk to the Arsenal Building. One of the most challenging aspects of the project was to create a way for drivers to traverse the busy four-lane Cesar Chavez Boulevard af­ter they park their vehicles. Of course, safety wasn’t the only consideration. Traffic management can be a night­mare for such a busy street, particularly when it needs to accommodate large numbers of people crossing the boulevard on foot during peak commuting times.

The skybridge was an obvious solution but one that had the potential to fall into the “easier-said-than-­done” category. The historic nature of the Arsenal Building was a potential roadblock. In a city like San Antonio that’s acutely aware of its history—and justifi­ably proud of it—it can be difficult to gain the necessary support for development that will fundamentally alter the architectural personality of the area. That’s one of the reasons the San Antonio Conservation Society has traditionally balked at the idea of skybridges.

Potential opposition was avoided through the cre­ation of a design that ensured the skybridge would complement local design while standing out as an ar­chitectural marvel on its own. San Antonio is a city of bridges. If you’ve had the privilege of visiting the city’s Riverwalk or taking a boat trip along the San Antonio River, you’ve experienced them. The South Alamo, Lojoya, Presa, Navarro, St. Mary’s, Market, Commerce, and Crockett bridges allow residents and tourists to cross the San Antonio River to visit its world-famous shops and restaurants.

This skybridge was designed to evoke the historic bridges along the San Antonio River and complement the city’s beautiful landscape. Designed by project ar­chitect Ford, Powell & Carson, it is constructed of cast concrete with chipped edges and stacked clay tile.
Casting the necessary concrete and installing the skybridge onsite would have required closing Che Guevara Boulevard for several days, which wasn’t really an option. As such, the skybridge was built off­site with precast concrete and delivered to the site in three sections, which were then assembled and lifted into place in a single night, while traffic was negligi­ble. The finished skybridge is 160 feet long and 10 feet tall by 10 feet across. It stands 27 feet above the busy four-lane roadway.

“The pedestrian bridge connecting the garage to the Arsenal Building was the ideal solution,” Wagner says. “It’s an essential element of the parking program because it provides safe and convenient access to and from the garage, while minimizing the impact of the parking garage on traffic in the area.

Location: San Antonio, Texas
Owner: H-E-B
Development team: Walker Consultants, parking consultant and structural engineer
Ford, Powell & Carson, architectural firm
Whiting-Turner, general contractor
Number of parking spaces: 744
Levels: Five elevated decks and two bays
Estimated construction budget: $19 million

The work day is much more pleasant for employees when it gets off to a good start in the parking facility, and those employees are typically more productive and effective at work. The Arsenal Building garage accomplishes all of these goals.

“It’s also a stunning addition to the local architec­ture,” Wagner continues. “The way it reflects San Anto­nio’s character is tremendous.”

The completed garage beautifully achieves its architectural goals while providing a safe and convenient parking experience.

Read the article here.

BILL SMITH is principal of Smith-Phillips Communications and contributing editor to Parking & Mobility. He can be reached at bsmith@smith-phillips.com.

CRAIG SMITH is a freelance writer. He can be reached at smithcw48@gmail.com.